Category Archives: Sand Mining

Philippines Black Sand Mining Operations, Gonzaga, Cagayan Province

BLACK SAND MINING IN BUGUEY, CAGAYAN PROVINCE
A dossier and photo reportage by Juergen Lorenz.

The black sand mining experience in Buguey, Cagayan caused DENR Secretary Lito Atienza to issue a cease-and-desist order (CDO) pursuant to Memorandum from DENR MGB Region II of February 2009 to miners who have been issued by the provincial government with a small-scale mining permit (SSMP). Operations continued and lasted until October 2011, Work Stoppage and CDO were again issued to Lutra, Inc., but until today, black sand mining continues in Buguey.

Photos taken on November 19, 2011

BLACK SAND MINING IN GONZAGA, CAGAYAN PROVINCE
In Gonzaga, despite a report by DENR itself dated April 29, 2011, that 2 black sand mining permittees are in violation of the law, as known to the complainants residing in the immediate vicinity of the operations, no CDO or stoppage orders have been served.

Stoppage Order, Cease and Desist Orders; See Original Slides, 25 to 30

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View Original Document: Result Of Inspection/Monitoring Re: Complaint Against Alleged Illegal Black Sand Mining In Gonzaga, Cagayan.


Titanomagnetite (Ironsands) exploration off the Northern Coast of Cagayan spanning coastline of seven (7) municipalities

Consolidated Iron Sands Limited leases and operates iron sand exploration tenements covering approximately 15,700 hectares offshore of the Philippines island of Luzon. The company was formerly known as Colossal Mining Limited. Consolidated Iron Sands Limited was incorporated in 2007 and is based in Sydney, Australia.

June 2008, CIS was established to explore, assess & develop Ironsands off the North Coast of Luzon, Philippines. Consolidated Iron Sands Limited (“CIS”) holds, via its 100% owned Philippine subsidiary, Exploration Permits for two offshore areas between Sanchez Mira and Gonzaga, offshore of Cagayan Province Luzon. Our tenements eastern limit is 3 kms from the Economic Free Zone of Port Irene. View More


BLACK SAND MINING IN GONZAGA, CAGAYAN PROVINCE
The mining operation of the Huaxia Mining and Trading Corporation ILLEGAL for the following reasons:
(a) There was no public consultation conducted prior to the favorable endorsement by our Barangay Officials for the operation of the Huaxia;

(b) The quarry site is within residential community that even houses are reached by high black sand piles;

(c) The quarry site is near the shorelines making possibility that the site would become a part of the China Sea for this was once under seawater washing away all the infra projects built on the area during the time of the then Mayor Epifanio Gaspar in the early part of 2005, hence quarrying at that area had been strictly prohibited on till 2010, but with the coming of the Huaxia, this has caused us grave fear for this would surely bury us all, here;

(d) The findings of the DENR Undersecretary for Field Operations should be the foremost consideration for they, themselves, who conducted the actual investigation consider the operation illegal; and
History of the Plight of the Local Community in Gonzaga, Cagayan against Black Sand Mining led by Ms. Esperlita Garcia, owner of Garcia Lodge, who has been subject of a harassment case by the Municipal Mayor Pentecostes of Gonzaga, Cagayan for her anti-black sand mining campaign since 2010.

(e) The full blast hauling of magnetite day in day out has scared, threatened, and has made the residents in the mining areas suffer tension which now confronted some of our barangay mates to sell their houses as evidenced from the houses marked “HOUSE AND LOT FOR SALE” within the mining community at the Chinese Huaxia Mining and Trading Company at the western part of barangay Calayan of which all of us feel so helpless and so sad knowing that the FOREIGN MINERS within our own residential communities prevail upon us, poor Filipino residents of our own titled lands; In the case of the Taiwanese Lianxing:
(a) They have taken much magnetite which maybe more or less 200,000 metric tons ever since their operation in 2006;
(b) Our residential community is so near the quarry site. We are so much affected but they seem to apply their foolishness forour Barangay Calayan which is so much affected by their operation of which we have never been benefited from their Social Development Fund as they have been giving to Barangay Batangan;
(c) The effects of the continuous magnetite mining operations in the areas will cause more serious degradation on our coastlines, the vulnerability of the coastal areas to flooding, and more severe pollution much more that there has been a big pipe directed to the sea particularly from the Taiwanese Lianxing Stone Carving compound installed in the first week of May 2011;

There is wisdom in the prohibition under DENR Administrative Order No. 2010-21 to prohibit issuance of permits to, but DENR has not acted swiftly on those that have been previously given permits despite devastation these mining operations have caused.

The DENR blame the local government officials for issuing the permits, but does not the DENR have jurisdiction on this matter and can sanction or file cases against local officials who allow illegal operations such as these in Gonzaga, Cagayan?

Harassment case against Esperlita Garcia by Gonzaga Mayor Carlito Pentecostes, as narrated by Ms. Esperlita Garcia:

“Ms. Esperlita Garcia of the Gonzaga Alliance for Environmental Protection and Preservation (GAEPP), an alliance member of Federation of Environmental Advocates of Cagayan (FEAC) and also member of the Board of Save Sierra Madre Network Alliance, Inc. was arrested due to a libel complaint by the town mayor based on her post in facebook narrating what transpired when the town mayor dispersed the anti-black sand mining rally organized by the local folks.” —Juergen Lorenz

“My Garcia Lodge business was ordered to be padlocked by our Mayor on May 16, 2011 although my Certificate of Authority expires on December 31, 2011, but when I showed to the Chief of Police and two other police officers my original copy of my BMBE CA, the good PNP apologized and advised me the need to meet the Mayor in his office the next day and so that was what I did. Unfortunately, I was penalized by the Mayor’s insistence that I pay my local annual revenues and get a Mayor’s Permit although it was not yet time for me to mining activities 500 meters from the mean low tide level going seaward and 200 meters from the mean low tide level going landward…

The following day, May 17, I met my the Mayor in his office to clear matters regarding his action for the closure of my lodging house but instead he confronted me on my anti mining advocacies; he brought out from his drawer, the printed copy of the DENR USEC Memo and interrogated me why I still needed to report the mining activities in our town to DENR Manila, so our argument/ dialogue on black sand mining issues lasted for more than 2 hours, with the presence of my husband. He stressed that the presence of the foreign mining companies including that of the Yinyi Mining Company operating in Santa Cruz, this municipality is VERY BENEFICIAL to the development of Gonzaga for the IRA is so meager to finance development projects he wants for our town;

He also told me that for him to be able to avenge of my actions against black sand mining, he needs to find ways for the closure of my business and if I do not apologize to him thru the FACEBOOK, he would file a libel case against me. Those words were so shocking to me. Our Mayor, Engr. Carlito F. Pentecostes, Jr as well as our Vice Mayor, Rene P. Salvanera, insisted that I needed to get a Mayor’s Permit to be able to continue the operation of my lodge. I reiterated that I am a registered BMBE (RA 9178) with CA expiring on December 31,2011 and that being aware that the BMBE is a national law, therefore the BMBE PREVAILS upon a local legislation and that local ordinances are deemed modified and amended accordingly as provided in DILG Memo 2003-172, but my argument was not considered by our Mayor and our Vice Mayor so I just obeyed their MANDATES; and On May 28,2011, a subpoena was served to me for a libel charge the Mayor filed against me at the Office of the Provincial Prosecutor in connection with my FB note, ”April 30,2011 Aborted Rally Against Black Sand Mining in Gonzaga, Cagayan”.
This is plainly harassment for I have no unpaid financial obligation whatsoever in the LGU, Gonzaga. In fact I was even double taxed considering that my BMBE Certificate of Authority known as RA 9178 which I availed being the pioneer in this lodging business in Gonzaga which helps in promoting tourism development
EXPIRES ON DECEMBER 31, 2011.
On November 22, 2011 is so unforgettable for me for at around 9 am, a warrant of arrest was served to me by the PNP uniformed and armed Officers and advised me to proceed to the PNP Headquarters. I have been charged with a crime of alleged Violation of Municipal Tax Ordinance which I am fully aware I have no unpaid tax whatsoever and that although my BMBE Certificate of Authority still expires December 31, 2011, Gonzaga Mayor Carlito F. Pentecostes, insisted my renewal of my business permit on May 17, 2011 a day just after the aborted padlocking of my micro business establishment, GARCIA LODGE , thus on this same day, I paid P3,165.00 +P196.00 for another business permit valid until December 31,2011, thereby making me double taxed. The Mayor issued me Mayor’s Permit on May 18, 2011 for if I declined his insistence to renew my business permit, he said he would cause for the closure of my lodge as I have been fighting for the stoppage of mining within our residential and coastal communities. As advised by my Lawyer, I requested my 2 sisters to go by themselves to the MCTC in Gonzaga to request for a copy of the Resolution for my Motion for Reconsideration I caused to be filed on November 2, 2011, but my sister called me that my said motion was denied, so I then rushed to the PNP Headquarters/ Office for documentation as needed and posted my cash bail bond at the MCTC so as to be issued an Undertaking Instrument and an ORDER OF RELEASE, but the prepared docus needed the signature of the Hon. Judge DOMINGO B. QUILANG, III, who was in the MCTC of Sta Ana, hence we rushed to where the Judge was for if we could not secure his signature I have to be in the custody of the PNP until such time that he signs the 2 docus.
At first, he manifested his reluctance to sign said docus. With Sister Minie of SAC of Sta. Ana at my side and my elder sister Elena, a retired MCTCourt Stenographer together with my younger sister Violy waiting outside the court room, Judge Quilang finally signed the said docus. Although my greeting and my thanking him were not at all responded even just simply a nod, I felt relieved, however, I contend that I HAVE NO CRIMINAL CASE WHATSOEVER and that I HAVE NO UNPAID FINANCIAL OBLIGATION AT THE LGU OF Gonzaga, Cagayan being manned by pro mining POLITICIANS.” —Esperlita Garcia.

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“Ms. Esperlita Garcia of the Gonzaga Alliance for Environmental Protection and Preservation (GAEPP), an alliance member of Federation of Environmental Advocates of Cagayan (FEAC) and also member of the Board of Save Sierra Madre Network Alliance, Inc. was arrested due to a libel complaint by the town mayor based on her post in facebook narrating what transpired when the town mayor dispersed the anti-black sand mining rally organized by the local folks.” —Juergen Lorenz

Read and View More

Sand Mining in the Philippines: Learn More, Coastal Care

Global Sand Mining: Learn More, Coastal Care

Tamil Nadu plans satellite imaging to check illegal mining, India

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Sand mining activities, Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula. Captions and Photo source: ©© Tamilbuddy

Excerpts;

Illegal granite quarrying scam recently unearthed in Tamil Nadu, the eleventh largest state in India by area and the seventh most populous state, has prompted the state government to put in place a monitoring mechanism for mining operations in the state. Tamil Nadu is set to go hi-tech to curb encroachments with its mining tenement registry through Global Information System (GIS) and satellite images…

Read Full Article, Times Of India

Sand mining: The High Volume – Low Value Paradox

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Illegal beach sand mining, Moroccan coast. Photograph: © SAF

By Kiran Pereira

Water does not exist in isolation. It is an integral part of any ecosystem and as such, every major change to this ecosystem has hydrological impacts which then lead to sociological, economic and other environmental consequences. The world’s freshwater resources are under threat from a wide variety of factors. Many of them such as over-abstraction of water from rivers and aquifers, pollution from point and non-point sources, changing patterns of precipitation are popularly known, debated and discussed widely. However, there are other crucial factors with significant social, environmental and economic impacts that are less known. One such threat is an activity known as ‘sand mining’ also referred to as dredging or gravel mining.

… Contrary to literature that says sand mining is not as environmentally damaging as other kinds of mining, it may be even more so because of its insidious nature and the fact that its effects often take decades to surface.
—Kiran Pereira

Sand mining has several negative impacts.

It poses a threat to water security in several ways. Dredging results in lowering of the alluvial water table which, in turn, directly affects groundwater storage capacity (See Kondolf et al., 2001). Excessive dredging allows for saline intrusion into groundwater (Viswanathan, 2002). The lowered water table implies a rise in water costs, thus restricting access to only those who can afford it (Hoering, 2008). It results in habitat loss including destruction and fragmentation of fragile, endangered ecosystems and reduced species richness (See Myers, 1999, Global Witness, 2010).

Sand mining also causes increased shoreline erosion rates, especially when mined unscientifically (Byrnes et al., 2000) and decreases protection from sea water especially during ocean disasters (Myers, 1999). It also poses a threat to critical infrastructure such as bridges, roads, railway tracks (Kondolf et al., 2001). Sand mining has also been known to cause loss of livelihoods in several instances (See Hoering, 2008, Young and Griffith, 2009 and Viswanathan, 2002). Other macroeconomic impacts have also been observed such as changes in land use patterns (Myers 1999) and increased public health costs (Myers & Muhajir I997, Mensah, 1997).

The demand for sand is fuelled by numerous factors. It appears that sand has long been commoditized and is now entrenched in global trade. Table 1 below illustrates the high trade value of this commodity. Despite the high value of this trade, or perhaps because of it, the activity is surprisingly depoliticized except when there are public concerns in specific areas.

Table 1: Global Trade in Stone, Sand and Gravel

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Compiled from UN Comtrade, United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database

It is no surprise that sand is indispensable for many economic development activities such as road building and concrete production. It also has other familiar uses such as in glass-making for window panes, glassware, glazing for pottery, lenses, television tubes, mirrors, fibreglass reinforcement, lamps, stained glass art, lasers, insulators, telescopes, bottles and containers for alcohol, soft drinks, and food items like jams, pickles (USGS, 2011). However, it is also used in several concealed ways such as hydraulic fracturing applications (Scienceviews.com, 2003-2010), in the making of semi-conductors that are used in almost every electronic device today ranging from notebooks to mobile phones and even in cars. Sand is also a source for strategic minerals such as Silica, Garnets, Thorium and ores such as Titanium, Uranium, Zirconium, Ilmenite which are in turn used in applications too numerous to list here. Nonetheless, two examples can be given to illustrate the breadth of use:

a) Titanium is used in ‘Production of lightweight alloys, aircraft components (jet engines, aircraft frames), automotive components, joint replacement (hips ball and sockets), paints, watches, chemical processing equipment, marine equipment (rigging and other parts exposed to sea water), pulp and paper processing equipment, pipes and jewellery [sic]’ (IIED and WBCSD, 2002).

b) Heavy Minerals such as Rutile, Sillimanite and Monazite are also sourced from sand. They find use in in the paint industry, welding electrodes, ceramics, foundry and also various applications like plastics, sun screen, food colouring and biomedical applications (Corpwatch, 2007). The most astounding use in terms of volume however, is the creation of ‘new land’. For e.g. Around 500 million m3 of sand was reclaimed (from the ocean bed) for the Palm Island II (Jebel Ali) and Waterfront projects on the coast of Dubai. ‘This equates to a row of trucks encircling the Earth about 22 times’ (Jan De Nul Group, 2009).

Given this demand situation, let us explore the supply side of the equation which exhibits a great spatial and temporal mismatch.

Although sand is more than abundantly available in deserts, this sand is not popularly considered a ‘resource’ because the physical morphology of such sand is not considered suitable for construction and other industrial activities. For such uses, ‘good quality’ sand is sourced primarily from relatively limited sources. Marine and terrestrial deposits are the two main sources. Marine (offshore) and terrestrial deposits are the two main sources. Offshore dredging is far more expensive, requires specialized equipment and special environmental permits. Offshore dredging is far more expensive, requires specialized equipment and special environmental permits. It is consequently used mostly by developed economies such as the US and Europe. As for terrestrial sources, river channel deposits, residual soil deposits and floodplain alluvial deposits are the most usual ones (Gelabert, 1997 in Cambers, 1997). Although continuous excavation can deplete sources in decades, some sands are said to be laid down from around 115 million years ago (The Greensand Trust, 2010). With a rapidly urbanizing world, such a perpetual demand vis-à-vis a limited supply of an easily available resource such as sand creates a rather complex situation with many winners and losers. Problems associated with sand mining have been reported across many regions of the world (Young and Griffith, 2009).

… Although continuous excavation can deplete sources in decades, some sands are said to be laid down from around 115 million years ago.
—Kiran Pereira

Some examples include Australia (Ratcliffe, 1997; Stoltz, 2011), Cambodia (Global Witness, 2010), Ghana (Mensah, 1997), India (Hoering, 2008; Padmalal et al., 2008; Sekhar and Jayadev, 2003; Sreeba and Padmalal, 2011), Namibia (Hartman, 2010), Tanzania (Nyandwi, 2001), United States (Brynes et al., 2000; Brynes et al.,2004; Femmer,2002; Kondolf et al., 2001), Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay (Halweil, 2000), Bosnia (Clancy, 2004). Island states in particular feel the acute tension between ‘development’ and the need to protect the coast. Numerous examples can be found in many of the Caribbean Islands such as Puerto Rico, Grenada, Tobago, Montesserat, British Virgin island and others (Cambers, 1997), Jamaica (Farrant et al., 2003), Sri Lanka (Gunaratne and Jayarooriya, n.d.), Indonesia (Kamis, 2011, The Jakarta Post, 2007) and Maldives (PTI, 2008, Jacob, 2010).

In terms of sheer volume, aggregates of construction minerals (such as sand and gravel) account for the largest material volumes mined in the world where the global production in 2000, was estimated to exceed 15 billion tonnes per year (IIED and WBCSD, 2002). The irony of this situation is that despite being extracted at such gargantuan rates, sand is classified as a ‘low value’ resource (Ibid) and also a ‘minor’ mineral resource even in legislation in many countries such as India (See MAC, 2007).

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Illegal beach sand mining, Moroccan coast. Photograph: © SAF

There is also literature that explicitly states that sand mining is not as environmentally destructive as other kinds of mining. For e.g. The United States Geological Survey (2011) states ‘Except for temporarily disturbing the immediate area while mining operations are active, sand and gravel mining usually has limited environmental impact.’ This paradigm is only a partial truth and needs to change because it robs science and politics of the incentive to explore alternatives.

… In terms of sheer volume, aggregates of construction minerals (such as sand and gravel) account for the largest material volumes mined in the world.
—Kiran Pereira

The author researched this topic further through a case study based in India. Three villages Mahad, Toradi and Bankot were selected. These villages lie along the Western Ghats of India, a region that is one of the world’s ten ‘hottest biodiversity hotspots’, with at least 325 globally threatened species occurring there (Myers et al.,2000). The region is also a very important watershed region for India. Rampant sand mining, often illegal, with high degree of political involvement, has wreaked havoc in the area. In the current scheme of things, neither the environment nor the local people seem to have voice in the matter. Dredging in the area has been going on for the last 20 years and was initially welcomed because it brought a new form of employment. However, with mechanical dredging, several problems have surfaced over the last 10 years and locals have been demanding a stop to this activity. Locals and the NGO working with them have each used the Right to Information Act (RTI) to obtain reports of resolutions of various gram panchayats (local governments) that confirm this popular protest. Yet, sand mining continues unabated and most of the dredged sand is sent to Mumbai, the financial capital of India.

Several ill-effects were noted in the region and they far outweighed the positive impacts on the region. The negative impacts of sand mining in the region are given below:
As per law, no dredging was allowed during the night, but in reality it was said to continue non-stop over 24 hours, every day of the year. The constant noise of mechanised dredging all day and all night was a major inconvenience to the residents because it also hampered sleep and the functioning of primary and secondary schools in the area.
Several landslides with much casualty have been reported in the region and official reports attribute it to heavy rains. However, locals believe sand mining to be the root cause. As one person said, ‘It is like this, if you make a heap of grain and you will remove grains from the bottom, the grain at the top will naturally fall. The base of the mountain is in the river. When you remove sand from the river, what else will happen?’

Both Mahad and Toradi faced similar challenges in that they were located downstream from an industrial estate run by the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) which was said to discharge untreated and hazardous industrial effluents into the river, leading to massive fish kills. It also made the water unfit for agriculture.
The deep dredging had worsened the problem. Locals claimed that ancient wells had begun to run dry because of falling water tables. Removal of the sand had also removed the last barrier to the leaching chemicals dumped in the river (as mentioned above), thus allowing the chemicals to seep further inland making groundwater unfit for domestic consumption. A report on water quality by the government Primary Health Centre confirmed the worst suspicions of the locals with ‘4 hoi and 38 nahi’ (4 yes and 38 nos) on various parameters.

Fishing was also affected because it was seasonal and fishermen could not fish during monsoons. They did not have an alternate means of livelihood, especially during the off-season. Therefore, the rest of the 8 months of work completely determined their quality of life. One person said, ‘In the past, 5 people depended on one boat but today one boat can support only 1-2 people – can’t give wages. It is difficult to maintain families’. Another said, ‘No bank is willing to give us a loan. We need to educate our children but we can’t afford it.

Sand barges often damaged fishing nets and reduced their catch. There had also been occasions of collision with fishing boats but ‘no one was willing to register complaints.’ They spoke of barges shifting sand and clay which resulted not only in nets going under soil because of disturbance but also disturbed navigational channels which then hampered local fishing operations especially during low tide.

The constant noise and disturbance of breeding grounds was also changing the kind of fish that can survive in the river. Consequently, the high-value catch for the local fishermen has diminished. They also felt their life was ‘under pressure’ and they were constantly ‘afraid of being dashed by the barges’. Official statistics too confirm this trend of declining fish stocks, though they do not attribute it to sand mining. See Table 2 below.

Table 2: Estimated Annual Marine Fish Production – Raigad and Ratnagiri

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Source: Department of Fisheries, Government of Maharashtra (India) (Compiled from Fish Production Reports across the years).

Given the rapid rate of urbanization and the current rate of extraction of sand and the silent devastation left behind in its wake, the modern process of assigning value, economic or otherwise to resources seems sadly inchoate and needs to be re-evaluated. In matters of food, clothing and other activities, we are influenced in many ways by the physical setting in which we live – coastal, desert, mountainous or forest regions. But we are also proficient at changing the environment ‘with unprecedented speed and effect’ (National Academy of Sciences, 1969, p26).

… Despite the high value of this trade, or perhaps because of it, the activity is surprisingly depoliticized except when there are public concerns in specific areas.
—Kiran Pereira

With globalization, there is a tendency for infrastructure, especially urban ones to be similar across geographies (ibid). Roads, bridges, airport runways are soon becoming ubiquitous. Availability of sand or the lack thereof thus directly or indirectly affects all who partake in this cup of modernity. The immediate effects of the lack though are felt most by the local community. Contrary to literature that says sand mining is not as environmentally damaging as other kinds of mining, it may be even more so because of its insidious nature and the fact that its effects often take decades to surface. Mining for iron ore or bauxite may cause alteration of the landscape so violently that its ill-effects are impinged on the viewer’s consciousness instantly whereas the gradual transformation of sand into bridges, roads, houses, paints, glassware, and other things that are taken for granted in modern urban lives is almost imperceptible. To the non-local spectator, nothing seems to be lost in the process beyond the inconvenient depletion of sand and the creation of visible craters in some instances. Sand mining has an undeniable impact on water resources and the people dependent on them, especially when carried out in an unscientific manner.

The paradox of this ‘high volume – low value’ resource needs to be explored further, particularly by those in academia and policy circles.

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Photo source: ©© Nwardez

About the Author: Kiran Pereira
Kiran Pereira would like to describe herself as a water warrior of sorts. She recently completed an MSc Environment and Development at King’s College, London. Her dissertation was titled ‘Sand: A Scarce ‘Symbol of Abundance’? Tracing the Contested Mindscape around Sand Mining‘. She has experience in capacity building, CSR, writing sustainability reports and the like. She worked for 10 years in the corporate sector before embarking on a master’s programme.

Article Originally published by: AquaKnow


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See Myers, 1999, Myers, G. (1999) ‘Political Ecology and Urbanisation: Zanzibar’s Construction Materials Industry’, ‘The Journal of Modern African Studies’, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Mar., 1999), pp. 83-108.

Sekhar, L. K. and Jayadev, S. K. (2003) ‘Karimanal (Mineral Beach-Sand) Mining in the Alapuzha Coast of Kerala – A People’s Perspective’, in Martin J. Bunch, V. Madha Suresh and T. Vasantha Kumaran, eds.,Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health, Chennai, India,15-17 December, 2003. Chennai: Department of Geography, University of Madras and Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University. Pages 470 – 488.

Sreeba,S. and Padmalal, D. (2011) ‘Environmental Impact Assessment of Sand Mining from the small Catchment Rivers in the Southwestern Coast of India: A Case Study’ Environmental Management 47:130–140.

Stoltz, G. (2011) ‘Police to Probe Sand ‘Theft’, Courier Mail; Available: Worker Bush Telegraph (accessed 31 July 2011).

The Greensand Trust (2010) ‘Geology, The Virtual Sand Museum’; Available: The Sand Museum (accessed 3 August 2011).

The Jakarta Post (2007) ‘Govt Told Not to Resume S’pore Sand Exports’; Available: Mines and Communities (accessed 31 July 2011).

UN Comtrade , United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database; Available: UN Comtrade (accessed 3 August 2011).

USGS, U.S. Geological Survey (2011) ‘Sand and gravel (industrial)’, Silica Statistics and Information; Available: USGS (accessed 3 August 2011).

Viswanathan, S. (2002) ‘Mining Dangers’, Frontline Vol 19 – Issue 10; Available: Frontline (accessed 3 August 2011).

Young, R. and Griffith, A. (2009) ‘Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining’, European Geosciences Union, General Assembly; Available: Coastal Care (Accessed 3rd Aug, 2011).

Midnight Sand Markets Flourish Post Ban, Andhra Pradesh State, India

sand-dune-night
Infrared shot of a dune. Captions and Photo source : ©© Irargerich

Excerpts;

At the unearthly hour of 4am on Thursday, Krishna Nagar area near Jubilee Hills bustled with activity with a convoy of sand laden lorries parked on either side of the road and eager customers, comprising builders, masons, plot owners making a beeline negotiating the best deal for a full or half lorry of sand. The midnight-to-morning sand market (a routine feature every night) had customers jostling and haggling for the best deal, some even indulging in panic buying with traders hard selling that sand supply from neighbouring states would stop in a few days…

Traders at these sand markets admit that the ban has worked in their favour as they have more than doubled the price, making a better profit now.

“The cost of regular sand until recently was Rs 750 per ton but is now being sold for Rs 1,700 per ton. Fine sand that was sold for Rs 800 per ton is now going for as much as Rs 2,000 per ton…

… And sky is the limit for a ton of sand.”

Read Full Article, Times Of India

Boom Time For Illegal Sand Mining, Kerala State, India

sand-dollar
Photo source: ©© MJardeen. Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is a city in the state of Kerala in southern India on the Malabar Coast. Kozhikode is the third largest city in Kerala state.

Excerpts;

With the coastal city of Kozhikode’s construction sector flourishing, illegal sand mining and misuse of sand passes have spawned a multi-crore business, setting off a range of social, legal and environmental issues…

A 5-tonne truck load of sand sourced through official channels costs around Rs 2,800. In the black market the same quantity is sold at Rs 8,000. And the huge demand and supply gap has spawned a parallel economy with the active collusion of political parties, law enforcement agencies and workers involved in illegal mining…

“The sand mafia is one of the most organized bodies with clout among political parties, organized labour and even enforcement departments…

Read Full Article, Times Of India

Destroying Paradise To Make Concrete Blocks: Sand Mining In Sierra Leone

sierra-leone-sand-mining
Sierra Leone, beach sand mining. “Unlawful and unsustainable sand mining is destroying one of Sierra Leone’s prize assets: her beaches.” Captions and Photo source: Change.Org

Excerpts;

A new threat has emerged that risks destroying Sierra Leone’s eco-tourism untapped opportunities for sustainable development: Sand Mining.

“It began slowly on the beaches closer to Freetown, Hamilton and Lakka. Chinese and Senegalese companies in need of sand to make asphalt to build roads, or quarries mixing it with cement for concrete-block buildings surrounded by barbed wire, the new image of “success” and “development” in Freetown, very similar to a prison to the untrained eye.”

Then suddenly, around February of 2012, the free-sand-for-all bonanza exploded. Without permits, hundreds of trucks attacked the beaches on a daily basis, hiring local boys as daily laborers to destroy their own communities. Hamilton beach and Lakka beach quickly disappeared.

The landscape changed. The trees collapsed. The mangroves are gone; there is nothing to protect the coast now from rainstorms and flooding. And so the trucks, always more numerous in numbers, moved west, and quickly arrived to John Obey beach. Some communities were forward-thinking enough to turn down promises of quick riches and temporarily employment to their residents, others unfortunately less so.

Everyone gets a piece of the pie, the local community is bribed to allow their beaches to be ransacked, the district councilman in nearby Waterloo fill their pockets, and the authorities in Freetown turn a blind eye. ..” Filippo Bozotti / Tribewanted

Petition: Stop sand mining in Sierra Leone

Read Full Article, And Learn More: Sierra Leone: Destroying Paradise To Make Concrete Blocks.
Sierra Leone has been my home away from home for the last two years. In 2010 we launched our ambitious second Tribewanted project there, on the pristine beaches of John Obey, in the Freetown Peninsula; a village of 500 souls, mainly fishermen and petty traders…

Sierra Leone:-Authorities Need To Take Firm Action To Protect Our Pristine Beaches, by Ishmael Kindama Dumbuya
First it was at the Lakka and Hamilton communities and beaches; now it is gaining momentum in all the beaches along the Western Area Peninsular Forest Reserve. Truck drivers are desperately moving from one beach to the other in search of sand for their daily sale to construction sites, and the Chinese and Senegalese construction companies are also moving to these pristine beaches for the white and shiny sand…

Need to protect our eco-tourism potentials, Sierra Express Media
Sierra Leone’s eco-water system is suffering a major degradation. Sand miners have evaded our country’s beaches exposing them to water sheds. Visiting Lakka, Borbo, and policing beaches around the peninsular areas, one can tell that sand lifting has disrobed the beauty of those once beautiful tourist destinations.

PETITION: Stop unsustainable sand mining on the Western Area Peninsula, Sierra Leone; By Change

Singapore And Jurong Island Reclamation

jurong-island-singap
Jurong Island is an artificial island located to the southwest of the main island of Singapore, off Jurong Industrial Estate. It was formed from the amalgamation of seven offshore islands. This was done through land reclamation. Captions and Photo source: ©© Vsion / Wikipediacloudzilla

Excerpts;

Singapore’s phase 4 of Jurong Island reclamation is scheduled to begin September 15…

Read Full Article, Dredging Today

View Video: Singapore Extends Its Coastlines With Illegally Dredged Sand
Singapore, one of the world’s most prosperous and fastest growing economies, is being accused of expanding its coastline with illegally dredged sand from neighboring states.

Singapore accused of launching Sand Wars
The island city-state’s size has increased by over 20 per cent since the 1960s and demand for sand for lucrative land reclamation and development projects is higher than ever. However, recent bans on exporting sand introduced in Indonesia, Cambodia and Vietnam have cut off supplies and opened up a thriving smuggling trade. Thieves have begun making night-time raids on the picturesque sandy beaches of Indonesia and Malaysia, carving out millions of tons of coastline and leading to fears of an imminent environmental catastrophe on a swath of tropical islands.

Singapore sand imports threaten Cambodian ecosystem
Singapore, which prides itself on being one of the most environmentally friendly nations in Asia, is expanding its coastline with irresponsibly dredged sand from Cambodia, according to a report from an environmental NGO.

Opposition to Beach Sand Mining Mounts, India

stormy
Photo source: ©© Gigi 62

Excerpts;

The Akhila Bharata Rythu Coolie Sangham and other organisations are vehemently opposing the sand mining activity in Vajrapukotturu — situated in the state of Andhra Pradesh on India’s southeastern coast — as they believe that it is detrimental to the interests of fishermen and other communities that depend on the sea for their livelihood.

Agitations have become the order of the day in several villages against beach sand mining…

Read Full Article, The Hindu

Crackdown Planned On Illegal River Sand Mining, China

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Sand barges, Hong Kong Bay. Photograph: © SAF.
Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People’s Republic of China. The capital is Guangzhou, and on coastal islands and adjacent mainland territories are Hong Kong and Macao.
Guangdong surpassed Henan and Sichuan to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year. The province contributes approximately 12% of the PRC’s national economic output, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of multinational and Chinese corporations.

Excerpts;

To regulate the river sand market, the Guangdong provincial government has launched a large-scale crackdown on illicit river sand mining gangs this year.

The government has also been encouraging construction companies to use substitutes for river sand…

Read Full Article, China Daily