Category Archives: Articles & Dossiers

Column: The future of Florida’s beaches and the public’s right to know; Op Ed. by Orrin Pilkey

Florida-erosion
Beach erosion, New Smyrna Beach, south of Daytona. Photo source: ©© Tracy Lee Carroll

Excerpts;

“The state of Florida has a very weak coastal management program and has carried out no realistic planning about how to respond to sea-level rise. The rise is expected to be 2 feet and perhaps significantly more by the year 2100. In fact, leading politicians of the state, including the governor, deny global climate change and have forbidden their lieutenants from even mentioning the seven words “climate change, global warming, sea level rise…”

Read Full Article, Tampa Bay Times

Can Florida Prepare for Climate Change Without Saying the Words?, CS Monitor (03-09-2015)
In Florida, climate change is the global phenomenon that must not be named. Since 2011, the state Department of Environmental Protection employees have been banned from using that term as well as “global warming” and “sustainability” in their work, according to a new report…

In Florida, officials ban term ‘climate change’, Miami Herald
The state of Florida is the region most susceptible to the effects of global warming in this country, according to scientists. Sea-level rise alone threatens 30 percent of the state’s beaches over the next 85 years.But you would not know that by talking to officials at the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the state agency on the front lines of studying and planning for these changes…

Palm Beach Mid-Town Dredge Project, A Youtube Video (02-04-2015)
“Beach nourishment projects like this have become commonplace along the US East and Gulf Coasts. These projects have immediate environmental impacts through burial of nearshore habitat and increased turbidity during project placement.The cumulative environmental impacts of doing this repeatedly on the same beach while conducting projects from Maine to Texas is unknown. But, we should be concerned. ” —Robert S. Young, PhD, Director, Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines, Professor, Coastal Geology, Western Carolina University

Sand Dredging: Let’s Save Brittany’s Shores, France

dredger
Onboard a sand dredger.
“Sand is the second most consumed natural resource, after water. The construction-building industry is by far the largest consumer of this finite resource. The traditional building of one average-sized house requires 200 tons of sand; a hospital requires 3,000 tons of sand; each kilometer of highway built requires 30,000 tons of sand… A nuclear plant, a staggering 12 million tons of sand…” Captions and Photograph by Award-winning Filmmaker: ©2013 Denis Delestrac

Extraction de sable: Sauvons les Côtes Bretonnes! By Avaaz
“Les côtes bretonnes sont en danger. Un énorme projet industriel est sur le point de ravager le fond de la mer pour en extraire des centaines de mètres cubes de sable. C’est un désastre écologique qui se prépare, mais nous pouvons nous faire entendre: le préfet n’a pas encore donné son autorisation.

Le ministre de l’Économie, conscient des risques, a promis des garanties. Mais ces promesses pourraient bien rester lettre morte: elles ne figurent pas dans le décret qu’il vient de signer. Désormais, seule une mobilisation citoyenne de grande ampleur peut convaincre le préfet de prendre en compte les promesses ministérielles.

Signez la pétition pour rappeler que la beauté des côtes bretonnes et leur biodiversité appartiennent à tous les Français, et pour que l’arrêté préfectoral offre toutes les garanties de protection de ce patrimoine commun.”

Translation:
Brittany’s shores are in peril. A large-scale offshore sand dredging project, where hundreds of m3 of sand are going to be extracted, is about to become a devastating reality. This is an environmental catastrophe in the making, but it is not too late and our voices can still be heard: the executive order has not yet been authorized by the local authority.

The Ministry of Economy, aware of the environmental risks, offered some garantees. However, these guarantees are likely to go unheeded as they are not mentioned as legal provisions in the previously signed decree. Only a large-scale citizen mobilization and rally can convince the local executive to close this loophole.

Brittany’s beautiful and pristine coastal environment and marine ecosystem must be preserved for our common good!

Please, join us and sign in the Petition: Sand Dredging: Let’s Save Brittany’s Shores!

Original Article, AVAAZ

Decree Granting Sand Mining Concession Has Been Signed – Environmentalist Group Will Appeal, AFP (09-19-2015)
The decree granting concession of shell sand in Bay of Lannion, Brittany, to CAN Industry, was signed Monday and published this Wednesday. The environmental group “Peuple Des Dunes” intends to appeal and file an action before the administrative court…

En Bretagne, Le “Peuple des Dunes” Défend Son Sable, Le Monde (02-14-2013)

Emmanuel Macron. Des garanties sur l’extraction de sable à Lannion, Ouest France (08-06-2015)

L’extraction de sable sera possible, mais limitée, à Lannion;
Le Monde (14-04-2015)

Sand-Wars / Le Sable: Enquête sur une Disparition: Film Documentaire de Denis Delestrac (24-05-2014)

North Topsail Beach Debacle No Way for NC to Manage its Coast; Op Ed By Robert Young

topsail-denis-delestrac
Topsail beach erosion, North Carolina. ©Photo courtesy of: “Sand Wars” Award-Winning Filmmaker Denis Delestrac. ©2013

Excerpts;

Is North Topsail Beach the most poorly managed beach community in the country? If not, it certainly seems to be taking a good shot at it. I have watched in dismay as the town has struggled to preserve a small stretch of oceanfront property at all costs. In doing so, officials have destroyed their beach and created significant access issues along more than a half-mile stretch of shoreline. Perhaps even more disconcerting is that this damage has been done with the permission of the N.C. Division of Coastal Management and the N.C. Coastal Resources Commission…

Read Full Article, News Observer

The Beach Belongs to Everyone

ocean-side-beach-cc
Ocean Side Beach, California. Photograph: © SAF – Coastal Care.

Excerpts;

In 2014, the Legislature and Governor gave the California Coastal Commission the authority to fine property owners who intentionally block public access to the coast. That authority was included in the 2015-2016 state budget…

Previously, the Coastal Commission’s only leverage against homeowners blocking beach access was litigation, which wealthy beach house owners and coastal homeowner associations could drag out for years in court. That left beachgoers at the mercy of phony signs, padlocked gates, chains and other illegal impediments meant to mislead and intimidate people from gaining their rightful access to public beaches…

Read Full Article, Huffington Green

What the Oceans Will Look Like in 2050

underwater
Photograph: © SAF — Coastal Care

Excerpts;

Oceans cover more than two thirds of Earth’s surface. They are home to millions of species, provide a key source of protein to people on every continent, and play an enormous role in regulating our planet’s climate, water cycle and more. They also are facing tremendous disruption from human action, from altered temperature and circulation to overfishing to acidification to plastic pollution.

What kind of oceans will we pass along to future generations of humans and other living things? The answer to that question starts with two others: What kind of oceans would we like to pass along? And what would it take to do so..?

Read Full Article, Ensia

What the Oceans Will Look Like in 2050, Quartz

Plastic Pollution / When The Mermaids Cry: The Great Plastic Tide, Coastal Care

When You Drill, You Spill.

refugio-oil-spill-cc
Refugio Beach, oil along the coastline. Photograph: © SAF – Coastal Care.
A 2012 Congressional Research Service report warns that even smaller spills can also cause significant harm to aquatic life. Birds, fish and other marine animals can suffer impaired immune systems and find it more difficult to feed and reproduce. Captions: Discovery News

Excerpts;

The Santa Barbara County spill, one of the largest in California history, reiterates what we already know: We can’t extract oil and transport it without putting our beaches, wildlife, and coastal communities at risk. The sad fact is, when you drill, you spill…

Read Full Article, Huffington Green

State of Emergency Declared for Oil Spill Off Santa Barbara Coast, (05-21-2015)
The length of the spill grew from 4 miles to 9 overnight, an amount that was “more than we anticipated last night,” U.S Coast Guard Capt. Jennifer Williams said…

U.S. Gives Conditional OK To Shell Oil For Drilling Off Alaska’s Arctic Shore, (05-14-2015)
The Obama administration has given conditional approval to Shell Oil’s plan to drill for oil in the Arctic Ocean this summer. The company wants to resume drilling in the Chukchi Sea off northwestern Alaska; it broke off that effort in 2012 because of safety problems…

Why U.S. East Coast Should Stay Off-Limits to Oil Drilling, Yale E360 (02-28-2015)
It’s not just the potential for a catastrophic spill that makes the new proposal to open Atlantic Ocean waters to oil exploration such a bad idea. What’s worse is the cumulative impact on coastal ecosystems that an active oil industry would bring…

U.S. Oil Platform on Fire in Gulf of Mexico, Reuters (05-22-2015)

Small Oil Spills Are Common: Here’s Why They Matter

California Coastal Armoring Report: Managing Coastal Armoring and Climate Change Adaptation in the 21st Century

seawall-sb-cc
Seawall, California coast. Photograph: © SAF — Coastal Care

By Molly Loughney Melius, Fellow, Stanford Law School Margaret R. Caldwell, Diretor, Environment and Natural Resources Law & Policy Program, Stanford Law School*

*With contributions from:
Ralph Faust, Philip King, Robert Young, Dean Misczynski, Paul Rosenstiel, Tim Eichenberg, Megan M. Herzog, Dan R. Reineman, and Deborah Sivas

Executive Summary:

In response to erosion and storm events, Californians have built seawalls, revetments, and other “coastal armoring” structures along significant portions of California’s coast. Coastal armoring now occupies more than 110 miles, or at least 10 percent, of the overall California coastline, including 33 percent of the southern California coastline.(1) This coastal armoring has diminished California’s beaches and habitat, irreversibly altered bluffs, caused increased erosion to neighboring properties, and marred the natural beauty of the coast.

A common perception is that seawalls and revetments protect the coast. Although such armoring structures may temporarily protect property from encroachment by the sea, they accelerate erosion of existing beaches and coastal habitats in the areas where they are located, limit beach access, and impede coastal recreation. Scientific evidence shows that coastal armoring structures prevent coastal ecosystems from migrating inland and cut off sand supply by preventing natural erosion processes. Put simply, when placed on an eroding or retreating beach, armoring structures will cause that beach to narrow and eventually disappear.(2) Wave energy reflecting off of shoreline armoring structures also undercuts the beach and can hasten coastal erosion in front of the structure as well as on neighboring properties, harming those properties and stimulating yet more armoring.(3) In short, many of California’s beaches, and the amenities and ecosystems they provide, may inevitably disappear due to armoring.

This risk of beach loss is increasing. Over 80 percent of the California coastline is actively eroding.(4) The projected impacts of climate change along California’s coast – including accelerated rates of sea level rise(5) and erosion and inundation from storms that may be more frequent and powerful – will place many coastal properties and ecosystems at increased risk of damage and loss.(6) With 85 percent of Californians living or working in areas affected by sea level rise, and California’s coastal population expected to grow significantly over the coming decades, pressure to armor the coast to protect development and community infrastructure will likely intensify.(7) Unfortunately, this increased armoring will cause faster and more widespread loss of the beaches and ecosystems that make the coast so valuable to many Californians.(8) Efforts by the California Coastal Commission to mitigate coastal armoring will be reviewed by the state Supreme Court in the coming months, indicating the importance of this issue.(9)

In California, as in any jurisdiction, decisions about whether to armor a section of coastline – or to make alternative investments in coastal hazard reduction – are driven by interactions among social, economic, political, environmental, technical, and legal factors. To date, few have characterized these factors comprehensively, and in connection to one another, to better understand the big picture of how coastal armoring will impact California’s coastline. To address the interdisciplinary nature of this problem, Stanford Law School’s Environmental and Natural Resources Law & Policy Program invited a mix of legal, policy, and technical experts from California and beyond to share knowledge and suggestions regarding a range of coastal armoring issues over the course of two multi-day workshops.

We considered coastal armoring in the framework of the following goals:

      • Preserving the economic, recreational and environmental value of beach and other coastal ecosystems, as well as public access to coastal resources;
      • Improving regulation, mitigation, and adaptive management of armoring projects;
      • Promoting the use of setbacks and other non-armoring mechanisms to avoid and
      mitigate long-term risks from sea level rise and related hazards;
      • Promoting local land use planning in the coastal zone that makes use of a broader set of risk reduction strategies and discourages armoring;
      • Promoting coastal hazard planning and mitigation approaches that incorporate sea
      level rise considerations and favor non-armoring solutions;
      • Promoting insurance programs and regulations that do not incentivize armoring; and
      • Developing and advancing financing mechanisms to support non-armoring solutions, such as nature-based coastal adaptation.

The working group’s findings address how coastal decision-makers might better analyze, prevent, and mitigate shoreline armoring impacts and eliminate institutional incentives that have led to intense coastal development and maladaptive responses to coastal changes.(10) The working group’s key findings and recommendations for improving shoreline armoring management statewide are described below.(11)

Key Findings

California’s “armored coast” is the product of many ad hoc, individual public and private sector decisions favoring protection of the built environment over preservation of at-risk public trust(12) resources such as beaches, public access and recreation, wetlands, and intertidal habitats. In spite of the documented environmental, social, and economic costs of armoring, many barriers to limiting coastal armoring remain.

  • 1. California’s laws and policies enable imprudent coastal armoring and impede strategic decision-making that might protect coastal public trust resources. In particular:
      a. The California Coastal Act’s provision that allows armoring for “existing development” and the California Coastal Commission’s interpretation and application of that provision in some cases has led to increased armoring and the loss of public trust resources.(13)
      b. There is a conflict in the Coastal Act between the language in Section 30235, which states the Coastal Commission “shall” allow armoring to protect existing structures, and the overarching goals and objectives of Chapter 3 of the Coastal Act, which call for protection of beach access, coastal resources, and scenic views.(14)
      c. The Coastal Commission needs stronger enforcement authority to adequately deter and remediate unlawful armoring structures.(15)
      d. Many armoring structures are installed with little to no analysis of the impacts they will have on the beach, ecosystems, or neighboring properties because property owners wait to apply for permits until there is an imminent emergency, at which time armoring structures may be installed without substantive review.(16)
      e. The Coastal Commission has struggled to determine and assess consistent and adequate fees as mitigation for adverse effects of armoring structures and has not addressed impacts to ecosystems or ecosystem services when calculating mitigation fees.
  • 2. Local governments lack reliable, adequate scientific and legal information to guide their decision-making with respect to coastal armoring; they also lack financial support and regulatory incentives to appropriately consider sea level rise and related coastal hazards in their infrastructure and coastal land-use planning.
  • 3. Among private property owners and regulators alike, there is a lack of attention to nature-based and other non-armoring responses to coastal hazards and sea level rise, in part because existing disaster relief policies, insurance programs, and inadequate mitigation fees for armoring do not sufficiently require property owners to internalize the cost of development in high-risk areas.
  • 4. Coastal armoring remains a standard response to coastal hazards for some state- owned lands and property.

Key Recommendations

(17)

  • 1. Advance stronger statewide laws, policies, and funding mechanisms that discourage armoring and encourage non-armoring responses to erosion, storm events, and sea level rise. These responses include, where feasible and appropriate, natural protective infrastructure and relocating property away from coastal hazards.
      a. To limit the availability of armoring, resolve conflicts in the Coastal Act between language in Section 30235 that states the Coastal Commission “shall” allow armoring to protect existing structures and the overarching goals and objectives of Chapter 3 of the Coastal Act.(18) This could be achieved with a legislative amendment to change “shall” to “may or” by adding more stringent conditions in Section 30235 that must be met in order for an armoring permit to be approved.(19)
      b. Clarify that the term “existing” in Section 30235 refers to structures existing when the Coastal Act was adopted.
      c. Amend state law to ensure that environmental impact analyses are conducted for armoring projects undertaken by Geologic Hazard Abatement Districts.
      d. Strengthen the Coastal Commission’s enforcement authority to address unlawful armoring structures and ensure that the Coastal Commission and the State Lands Commission use their existing authority and discretion to curtail armoring and its impacts.
      e. Limit the availability of emergency seawall permits to situations in which there is a legitimate “sudden unexpected emergency” and improve mechanisms to force removal of emergency armoring structures in the absence of longer-term authorization.(20)
      f. Ensure that public funding and government decision-making support sustainable climate change adaptation options and do not increase the vulnerability of infrastructure or property.
  • 2. Ensure that local coastal planning mechanisms are used to incorporate a broader set of sustainable adaptation strategies and to discourage armoring.
      a. Ensure local governments have access to coastal adaptation planning and implementation funds.
      b. Require science-based planning for sea level rise and implementation of established plans in ways that protect public access and natural resources.
      c. Support integration of community planning (primarily under the state Government Code and the Coastal Act) and hazard prevention/mitigation planning (primarily under the federal Stafford Act).
      d. Support adoption of policies and ordinances that require the consideration of sea level rise in erosion rate calculations and setback determinations. Develop standard, transferable methodologies for factoring sea level rise into hazard analyses.
  • 3. Support development and implementation of measures, including insurance programs and regulations, that require and/or incentivize private property owners to assume the risks of developing in high-hazard areas and that facilitate relocation away from hazardous areas.
  • 4. Where possible, pursue non-armoring responses to sea level rise and related coastal hazards for state-owned and private lands, such as relocating development (e.g., buildings, parking areas, roadways, utilities) and using other managed retreat strategies.
  • 5. Improve the availability of relevant data, guidance, and technical resources.(21)
      a. Support consistent statewide monitoring of armoring impacts and compile comprehensive statewide data regarding the use, locations, and consequences of armoring.
      b. Support development of legal guidance that helps state and local entities conform with constitutional limitations(22) when they promote non- armoring responses to sea level rise and related coastal hazards.
      c. Support development of standard methodologies for calculating impacts and identifying mitigation measures that account for the full value of impacts caused by armoring, including impacts to neighboring properties and public trust resources.
      d. Support pilot projects that demonstrate the feasibility and value of non- armoring solutions at the community scale.

Through these recommendations and this white paper, we hope to help California avoid and reduce maladaptive armoring responses to sea level rise and related coastal hazards, and instead to encourage more sustainable adaptation strategies for public and privatestructures and resources alike. California’s coastal managers must consider whether private property owners should be allowed to potentially sacrifice the public trust, public access to the beach, and the economic value of beaches in order to protect their own property. Similarly, in the case of government-funded projects, coastal managers should carefully consider how much taxpayer money should go toward temporarily stabilizing an otherwise eroding shoreline.

A more economically and ecologically sustainable approach to addressing sea level rise and related coastal hazards is critical to California’s ability to protect public access, public and private property, and coastal ecosystems now and in the future.

Read Full Report: “California Coastal Armoring Report: Managing Coastal Armoring and Climate Change Adaptation in the 21st Century” (06-18-2015)


References and footnotes:

  • (1) Gary B. Griggs, The Effects of Armoring Shorelines—The California Experience, in Puget Sound Shorelines and the Impacts of Armoring—Proceedings of a State of the Science Workshop, May 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, at 77-84 (Hugh Shipman et al. eds., 2010).
  • (2) See Nicholas C. Kraus, The effects of seawalls on the beach: an extended literature review, Journal of Coastal Research 1-28 (1988); see also Jenifer E. Dugan et al., Ecological Effects of Coastal Armoring on Sandy Beaches, 29 PSZNI: Marine Ecology 160, 160-170 (2008); Gary B. Griggs, The Impacts of Coastal Armoring, 73 Shore & Beach 13, 13-22 (2005).
  • (3) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Technical Note CETN-III-8, Seawalls: Their Applications and Limitations (1981); see also Griggs, supra note 1, at 83 (noting that further study is needed to determine the significance of accelerated erosive impacts of wave reflection and scour).
  • (4) See Living with the California Coast, (Gary B. Griggs & Lauret Savoy eds., Duke University Press, 1985); Gary B. Griggs, California’s Coastline: El Niño, Erosion and Protection, in California’s Coastal Natural Hazards: Santa Barbara, California, University of Southern California Sea Grant Program 36, 36- 55 (L. Ewing & D. Sherman eds., 1998).
  • (5) Sea level in California is expected to rise by at least one foot in the next forty years and by at least four to five feet over the next century. California Climate Action Team, Coastal and Ocean Working Group, State of California Sea-Level Rise Guidance Document (Ocean Protection Council, Mar. 2013); National Research Council, Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington: Past, Present, and Future 117, table 5.3 (National Academies Press, 2012).
  • (6) Id.; see also Sara C. Aminzadeh, Rising to the Challenge: California Coastal Climate Change Adaptation, in Climate Change Impacts on Ocean and Coastal Law 533, 534 (Randall Abate ed., 2015).
  • (7) Cal. Dep’t of Boating and Waterways, The Economic Costs of Sea-Level Rise to California Beach Communities, 72 (2011), available at http://www.dbw.ca.gov/PDF/Reports/CalifSeaLevelRise.pdf; Cal. Natural Resources Agency, 2009 California Climate Adaptation Strategy: A Report to the Governor of the State of California in Response to Executive Order S-13-2006, 1, 68 (2009), available at http:// resources.ca.gov/climate_adaptation/docs/Statewide_Adaptation_Strategy.pdf.
  • (8) Mark Baldassare, PPIC Statewide Survey: Californians and the Environment, Public Policy Institute of California (Feb. 2006), available at http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/survey/S_206MBS.pdf.
  • (9) See Lynch v. Cal. Coastal Comm’n, 229 Cal. App. 4th 658 (2014), cert. granted, 339 P.3d 328 (2014) (The California Supreme Court will review the issues of whether homeowners can challenge seawall permit conditions after construction, whether the Coastal Commission can impose a 20-year limitation on a
    seawall reconstruction permit, and whether the permit condition which prohibited homeowners from reconstructing the lower portion of their beach access stairway down the bluff was valid.)
  • (10) Jon Barnett & Saffron O’Neill, Maladaptation, 20 Global Envtl. Change 211, 211-213 (2010). Maladaptation arises when selected actions, relative to alternatives: cause a net increase in emissions of greenhouse gases; disproportionately burden the most vulnerable sectors or populations; reduce incentives to adapt in the future; create “path dependency” (i.e., commit capital and institutions to trajectories that are difficult to change in the future); or result in high economic, social, or environmental costs.
  • (11) The initial workshop discussion and background research generated a list of fifty potential action items to reduce shoreline armoring. We organized this list into a survey, asking the workshop participants to rate each action item on a scale of one to five in terms of importance, urgency, and feasibility. From the survey responses, we highlighted the top seventeen recommendations that participants considered to be the most important, urgent, and feasible. In a second workshop, we narrowed the recommendations down to the most critical issues.
  • (12) For detailed information on the public trust, see infra Sections V and VI.
  • (13) See Cal. Pub. Res. Code § 30235 (West 2015).
  • (14) Cal. Pub. Res. Code § 30235; see id. §§ 30211, 30251 (calling for protection of beach access and scenic views). When conflicts such as these arise, Coastal Act Section 30007.5 provides that they should “be resolved in a manner which on balance is the most protective of significant coastal resources.” Id. § 30007.5; see also id. § 30200. However, this conflict-resolving provision is underutilized.
  • (15) While recent legislation gives the Coastal Commission authority to fine property owners who illegally block public access to beaches, the Coastal Commission still must go to court to seek penalties for any other violation, such as building armoring structures without permits. See Cal. Pub. Res. Code § 30821.
  • (16) Emergency applicants are required to reapply to the Coastal Commission for a standard permit to permanently authorize their armoring structure, subject to the usual review process. In reality, however, many applicants do not reapply and the Coastal Commission has not strictly enforced removals of temporary emergency structures. See, e.g., Cal. Coastal Comm’n, Staff Report F12b (App. No. 3-12-030) (Pebble Beach Company) at 17 (June 2013) (noting that a seawall was initially installed via an emergency permit but that the applicant never applied for permanent authorization), available at http://documents.coastal.ca.gov/reports/2013/6/F12b-6-2013.pdf.
  • (17) These recommendations are broken out into detailed sub-recommendations and actions items in Section VII.
  • (18) Cal. Pub. Res. Code § 30235; see id. §§ 30200, 30211, 30251.
  • (19) Section 30235 currently provides that the structure must be designed to eliminate or mitigate adverse impacts on local shoreline sand supply. Id. § 30235. In the absence of these changes, the Coastal Commission could argue that the conflict-resolving provision in Section 30007.5 may justify its denial of certain armoring permits. See Sections VI and VII for further analysis of this issue.
  • (20) See Cal. Code Regs. tit. 14 § 13009 (West 2015).
  • (21) One possible avenue for collecting relevant data is through the state’s new sea level rise planning database. See A.B. 2516, 2013-2014 Leg., Reg. Sess. (Cal. 2014), codified at Cal. Pub. Res. Code §§ 30961-30968 (an innovative new law that requires California to develop an online database of sea level rise planning actions taken by state agencies and selected other entities.)
  • (22) See U.S. Const. amend. V; Cal. Const. art. I, § 19.

sea-level-rise-coastal-care
California coast. Photograph: © SAF — Coastal Care

Urge the Coastal Commission to protect Goleta Beach!

goleta-beach-nourishment
Beach re-nourishment operations at Goleta Beach, California, March 2010. Goleta Beach County Park, occupies approximately 29 acres with 4,200 feet of beach frontage in Santa Barbara County. An ongoing problem concerning Goleta Beach is coastal erosion; sand and sediment is constantly being washed away and the beach is narrowing. The beach has been eroding at an average rate of 20 feet (6 m)-per-year.
We strongly believe that sustainable and responsible responses to the problem of Goleta’s beach erosion, require an adaptation and not a resistance to Nature. Thinking back to look ahead, we believe is key to adjust to the climatic and environmental changes we are experiencing. Looking back, and around, can only bring confirmation to the fact that hardened structures do harm beaches. Captions and Photo source: © SAF — Coastal Care

Excerpts;

“On May 13th in Santa Barbara, the California Coastal Commission will consider the approval of two pre-existing (but currently un-permitted) rock revetment seawalls to protect a parking lot which was built decades ago on the public beach. The rock seawalls are already eroding and damaging the most-visited beach in Santa Barbara County…

Goleta Beach is a scenic, accessible community treasure. As the most visited beach in Santa Barbara County, it is a public resource that must be protected.

Please send a letter to the Coastal Commission asking them to support the Goleta Beach Restoration Plan by relocating the western parking spaces and sewer line and denying the rock seawall.”

Read Full Article and Learn More, Surfriders

“Comments on Goleta Beach Project Coastal Development Permit,” Letter from Dr. Orrin Pilkey, James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of Geology Duke University presented to the California Coastal Commission, May 5, 2015

Protect and Restore Goleta Beach, California, By Linda Krop, Brian Trautwein and Sandy Lejeune; Independent (03-14-2014)
The unpermitted seawall at the west end of Goleta Beach is no exception; it must be removed to preserve Goleta Beach…

In Pictures: Aftermath of storm on Goleta Beach (March 1, 2014), The Independent

Goleta Beach, California
An ongoing problem concerning Goleta Beach is coastal erosion; sand and sediment is constantly being washed away and the beach is narrowing…

We Need to Retreat From the Beach, An Op Ed by Orrin H. Pilkey.

Comments on Goleta Beach Project Coastal Development Permit

goleta-beach-nourishment
Beach re-nourishment operations at Goleta Beach, California, March 2010. Goleta Beach County Park, occupies approximately 29 acres with 4,200 feet of beach frontage in Santa Barbara County. An ongoing problem concerning Goleta Beach is coastal erosion; sand and sediment is constantly being washed away and the beach is narrowing. The beach has been eroding at an average rate of 20 feet (6 m)-per-year.Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of sand necessary to Goleta’s beach replenishment, has been collected from Santa Barbara West Beach and Harbor. The nourishment project cost was 1.6 millions dollars. Captions and Photo source: © SAF — Coastal Care

Open Letter from Dr. Orrin Pilkey, James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of Geology Duke University presented to the California Coastal Commission, May 5, 2015.

Comments on Goleta Beach Project Coastal Development Permit

Dear Chair Kinsey and Commissioners,

Thank you for considering the following comments regarding the Goleta Beach Project. I submit these comments in order to help the California Coastal Commission develop a balanced solution to the Goleta Beach issue. The Commission staff recommends a 20-year permit authorizing retention of the rock revetments on the west side of Goleta Beach County Park in Santa Barbara County. Retaining the rock revetments will lead to erosion of the beach adversely affecting coastal processes, beach recreation and sand supply.The Commission should help the County pursue a solution that avoids such impacts and that protects Goleta Beach – including the sandy beach – as an important and irreplaceable community resource.

My background enables me to comment on the Project as an expert in the field of coastal processes. My qualifications to comment on this Project include the following:

  • PhD Geology, Florida State University, 1962
  • MS Geology, University of Montana, 1959
  • BS Geology, Washington State College, 1957

My experience lies in basic and applied coastal geology. In addition, I founded and am now the director Emeritus of the Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Duke University My vita is attached for your information.

I have not visited the beach park in question for at least a decade. My long experience has taught me that all beaches in the world are unique in terms of a combination of parameters including wave climate, atmospheric climate, sand supply, offshore bars, width and sediment cover of the adjacent continental shelf, sediment type, beach orientation, coastal type, sea level rise rate and of course the impact of humans. However in this brief document I address some beach issues that are common to all beaches.
As noted in the EIR, sea level rise is expected to be of the order of 3 feet by the year 2100 due to a combination of ice sheet melting and thermal expansion of the ocean. This will have such a huge impact of low lying areas such as the Goleta Beach Park that the rising sea should be a paramount, overriding factor in any aspect of planning for the park. For this reason the County’s assertion that the impacts of the revetments are not significant is of particular concern to me. The general trend is crystal clear and it makes no sense to ignore the impacts.

The impacts of the revetments or any shoreline revetment will increase over time in just about all regards. Sea level rise rates are increasing and the level of the sea will be higher in coming years which in itself will be responsible an increase in erosion rates at Goleta Beach. In effect, the equilibrium shoreline position will be further inland as a result of sea level rise and erosion rates will increase as the shoreline attempts to readjust to the new conditions. Storm surges will likely increase in intensity as the seas warm. Even if storm intensity doesn’t increase, flooding will increase because of a higher base elevation of the sea. It is a certainty that in the future, both active and passive erosion rates will pick up in front of engineering structures such as the Goleta Beach revetments.

To retain the rock revetments in light of a rising ocean is irresponsible in my view. It means that the response in an attempt to save the park a couple decades from now will be on a crisis basis on a schedule determined by big events (storms). Everything will be on an emergency basis including funding and the time available for planning will be nonexistent. Recognition of the probability of increased sea levels and storm intensities will mean the County will be at least partly prepared. It’s a matter of tactical disarray versus strategic preparation, planned for and primed well in advance.

Apparently the County and Commission staff play down the beach narrowing process (passive erosion) in front of the revetments in part because the natural processes involved are speculative. It’s a mentality that suggests that if you cannot figure it out with certainty, hide your head in the sand. That is, who knows when the next storm will arrive, from what direction it will come, where it will strike, how long it will last, what will the storm’s intensity be and with what frequency will future storms arrive.

Of course no one knows rates of beach narrowing for certain but as coastal engineer Michael Walther of Coastal Tech has pointed out in his comments on the County’s EIR, the extent of narrowing on a decadal time frame is more or less predictable based on current erosion rates along this coastal reach with an adjustment for sea level rise. This will be a ballpark estimate but nonetheless useful for planning and better than one’s head in the sand.

There is no such thing as an accurate forecast of the impact of beach processes on a given beach. (There is no such thing as an accurate forecast of any earth surface process). But often an idea of the future can be gained by looking at neighboring beach projects with more than of decade lifespan.

Strong impacts on adjacent beaches are a near certainty. As the beaches narrow due to passive erosion in front of a revetment the surface from which sand is stirred up by the surf and then transported becomes narrower and the amount of sand transported laterally becomes proportionately smaller. Eventually as the revetment protrudes out onto the original beach, it has a groin effect, trapping sand, causing both beach narrowing and further reducing lateral sand transport, starving the downdrift beaches.

Dr. David Revell (Revell Coastal, Inc.) and Gary Griggs (2006) have already documented narrowing on Goleta Beach as a result of other revetments placed on the beach in prior years. The rock revetments at the west end of Goleta Beach are exposed frequently at all times of the year, as can be seen in photos and google earth images. Given this, it is clear that the revetments are already harming Goleta Beach. Retaining the revetments for a period of 20 years or longer will further exacerbate these impacts including erosion, narrowing and submergence of the beach.

Fundamentally use of hard structures at Goleta Beach should be viewed as a means to protect buildings and park areas behind the structures at the price of loss of the beach. Your Commission should seek to protect coastal-dependent beach uses and balance resource protection at Goleta Beach by requiring removal of the damaging rock revetments and relocation of threatened infrastructure (sewer line, parking spaces and bike path) to other locations within the park. Such relocation has been studied in the County’s EIR, has been priced, and is a feasible alternative which would protect the park facilities, protect the beach from erosion caused by the revetments, and would balance coastal resources including coastal access, recreation and the sandy beach.

Thank you for your attention to these comments.

Sincerely,
Orrin Pilkey, PhD

May 5, 2015
Dr. Orrin Pilkey
James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of Geology Duke University
Box 90227
Durham, NC 27708 opilkey@duke.edu
Steve Kinsey, Chair
California Coastal Commission 45 Fremont Street, Suite 2000 San Francisco, CA 94105
RE: Comments on Goleta Beach Project Coastal Development Permit


The California Coastal Commission hearing will be held on May 13th, 2015, at Santa Barbara County Board of Supervisors Hearing Room, 105 E. Anapamu St., 4th Floor

SAVE THE DATE to SAVE GOLETA BEACH: Learn more with: the Environmental Defense Center

Removal of the unpermitted rock seawall from the western side of the park means the beach will be protected for future generations!


VITA

Orrin H. Pilkey
James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of Earth Sciences Duke University
Office: Nicholas School of the Environment Division of Earth and Ocean Sciences
Duke University, Box 90228
Durham, NC 27708-0228
(919) 684-4238 Fax: (919) 684-5833
Email: opilkey@duke.edu

Education:

  • B.S., Geology, Washington State University (1957)
  • M.S., Geology, Montana State University (1959)
  • Ph.D., Geology, Florida State University (1962)

Memberships:

  • 1) Geological Society of America
  • 2) Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists (SEPM) 3) Society for Sedimentary Geology
  • 4) International Association of Sedimentologists
  • 5) American Geophysical Union
  • 6) Sigma Xi
  • 7) Explorers Club

Experience:

  • 1) Summers 1953-1955, U.S. Forest Service, Missoula, Montana, smokejumper;
  • 2) Summer 1956, General Electric Company, Richland, Washington, ground water geological assistant;
  • 3) 1957-1965, U.S. Army; 6 months active, 8 years reserve – final rank: Captain; 4) Summer 1961, Huber Clay Company, geologic field assistant;
  • 5) 1962-1965, University of Georgia, research associate and assistant professor, Marine Lab, Sapelo Island, Georgia;
  • 6) 1965-1967, Assistant Professor of Geology, Duke University;
  • 7) 1967-1975, Associate Professor of Geology, Duke University;
  • 8) 1965-1970 Director of Graduate Studies, Geology Department, Duke University;
  • 9) 1972-1973, Visiting Professor, University of Puerto Rico, Department of Marine Sciences;
  • 10) 1975-1983, Professor of Geology, Duke University;
  • 11) 1975-1976, Senior research geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA;
  • 12) 1978-1979, Acting Director, Duke University Oceanographic Program;
  • 13) 1983-2001, James B. Duke Professor of Geology, Duke University;
  • 14) 1986-2006, Founder and Director, Duke University Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines;
  • 15) 2001 to present, James B. Duke Professor Emeritus of Earth Sciences;
  • 16) 2006, Founded collaborative program with Western Carolina University of the Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines;
  • 17) 2006-present, Director Emeritus, Joint Western Carolina University-Duke University Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines.

Editorships:

  • 1) Editor, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 1978-1983.
  • 2) Associate Editor, Marine Geology, Journal of Coastal Research, and Geology
  • 3) Series Editor, Living with the Shore book series (20 volumes) (with W.J. Neal), 1979-present

Activities:

Member of Duke University scholarly exchange delegation, Peoples
Republic of China (1975); member of two state government committees concerned with shoreline development problems; twice member of the Duke University Academic Council (faculty senate); Chairman, Shepard Medal Committee, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, (1971-72); vice-president and program chairman, North Carolina Academy of Science, (1974); marine geology “editor,” Glossary of Geology, American Geological Institute, (1976); outside member of various Ph.D. committees in other universities (University of Georgia, George Washington University, University of South Carolina, University of Toronto); University Educational Policy and Program Committee; Duke Marine Lab Advisory Committee; Council, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, (1978-1986); Board of Directors, Association of Earth Science Editors, (1982-1984); Board of Directors, North Carolina Coastal Federation; Board of Directors, The Coastal Alliance; testimony before two congressional committees during barrier island bill deliberations, (1981-1982); Sedimentary Petrology and physical processes panel, Deep Sea Drilling Program; Publications committee, Joint Oceanographic Institute; Member, National Research Council Panel on sea level rise and coastal engineering; President, North Carolina Academy of Science, (1981-1982); Program Chairman, Association of Earth Science; Editors, (1982); Duke University UNOLS representative, (1978-1981); Consultant for shoreline books to Time-Life Books and National Geographic Society; Publications committee, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, (1982-1986); Proposal Review Panel – Submarine Geology and Geophysics, (1984); President-elect of Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, (1984), President (1985-86); Program Chairman, 1986 Mid-year Meeting, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists; member of Marine Board Committee on Engineering Implications of Changes in Relative Sea-level, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences; testimony before House Subcommittee on Public Lands and National Parks regarding Oregon Inlet Jetty Project (1984); testimony before joint subcommittee meeting of the Senate Environmental and Public Works committee regarding Oregon Inlet Jetty Project (1984); WAE US Geological Survey (1975-present); organizer, NSF-KOSEF (Korea NSF) conference on Marine Geology of the Yellow Sea, Seoul, Korea (1984); National Academy of Science consultant to Portugal Geological Survey re: start-up of Coastal Geology Program (1985); consultant to “IGNEOMINAS” (Geological Survey of Columbia) re: start-up of Coastal Geology Program (1986); President, SEPM Foundation (1986-1988); Vice President SEPM for Fund Raising, SEPM Foundation (1988-1992); present numerous talks to local civic, social, and environmental groups (8-10 per year); occasional conference keynote speaker; Executive board, Move the Lighthouse Committee (1986-present); testimony before Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the House Committee on Government Operations on beach replenishment at Ocean City, Maryland (1990); National Research Council Beach Replenishment Panel (1992); Geological Society of America, Geology and Public Policy Committee member (1994- ); member of Geological Society of America Council (1994- 1996); activities continued, record-keeping discontinued.

Activities of Note:

  • President, North Carolina Academy of Science, 1982
  • Recipient – James B. Duke Professorship, 1983
  • President, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists (SEPM), 1985-
    1986

  • President SEPM Foundation, Inc., 1986-1989

Awards:

  • Francis Shepard Medal for Excellence in Marine Geology, 1987;
  • Conservation Educator of the Year, N.C. Wildlife Federation, 1991;
  • Honorary Membership, The Society for the Study of Sediments (SEPM), 1992;
  • George V. Cohee Public Service Award, The American Association of
    Petroleum Geologists, 1992;

  • James H. Shea Award for exceptional contributions in editing of Earth Science
    materials, National Association of Geology Teachers, 1993;

  • American Geological Institute Award for outstanding contribution to the public understanding of geology (with William Neal), 1993;
  • Outstanding Public Service Award for extraordinary contributions to achieving FEMA’s goals of reducing the impact of disasters on people and communities through mitigation, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 1999;
  • GSA Public Service Award in Honor of Eugene & Carolyn Shoemaker, recognizing the enhancement of the public’s understanding of Earth Science, The Geological Society of America, 2000;
  • Honorary Doctorate Degree, University of the South (Suwannee), 2001;
  • Priestley Medal, the Dickinson College Award in Memory of Joseph Priestley,
    for distinguished research in coastal geology and public service in policy formulation and education about America’s coastal resources, Dickinson College, 2003;

  • Lifetime Achievement Award from the North Carolina Coastal Federation, 2008.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS

  • Newton, J.G., O.H. Pilkey, and J.O. Blanton, 1971, An Oceanographic Atlas of the Carolina Continental Margin: N.C. Dept. of Conservation and Development, 57 p. Swift, D.J.P., D.B. Duane, and O.H. Pilkey (eds.), 1972, Shelf Sediment Transport, Process and Pattern: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. Stroudsburg, PA, 656 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., O.H. Pilkey, Sr., and R. Turner, 1975, How to Live With an Island: N.C. Dept. of Natural and Economic Resources, Raleigh, NC, 191 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and S.J. Fritz (eds.), 1976, A Marine Atlas of Puerto Rico: M.J. Cerame-VIVAS, Inc., San German, Puerto Rico, 139 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., W.J. Neal, and O.H. Pilkey, Sr., 1978, From Currituck to Calabash: N.C. Science and Technology Research Center, Raleigh, NC, 228 p. -2nd edition, 191 p. -3rd edition, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.
  • Doyle, L.J., and O.H. Pilkey (eds.), 1979, The Geology of Continental Slopes: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Paper No. 27, 374 p.
  • Kaufman, W., and O. H. Pilkey, 1979, The Beaches Are Moving: The Drowning of the American Shoreline: Anchor-Doubleday, 326 p. (Book-of-the-Month Club Alternate Selection, 1980). Paperback edition, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 1983.
  • Morton, R.N., O.H. Pilkey, and W.J. Neal, 1983, Living with the Texas Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 190 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Sr., W.D. Pilkey, O.H. Pilkey, Jr., and W.J. Neal, 1984, Coastal Design, A Guide for Planners, Developers and Homeowners: Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 224 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Jr., S. Dinesh, H. Wanless, L. Doyle, O.H. Pilkey, Sr., W.J. Neal, and B. Gruver, 1984, Living with the East Florida Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 259 p.
  • Neal, W.J., C. Blakeney, and O.H. Pilkey, 1984, Living with the South Carolina Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 157 p.
  • Doyle, L.J., et al. 1984, Living with the West Florida Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 222 p.
  • Kelley, J.R., A.R. Kelley, O.H. Pilkey, and A.A. Clark, 1984, Living with the Louisiana Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 164 p.
  • McCormick, L.R., O.H. Pilkey, Jr., W.J. Neal, and O.H. Pilkey, Sr., 1984, Living with Long Island’s South Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 157 p.
  • Canis, W.F., W.J. Neal, O.H. Pilkey, Jr., and O.H. Pilkey, Sr., 1985, Living with the Mississippi-Alabama Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 214 p.
  • Griggs, G., and L. Savoy (eds.), 1985, Living with the California Coast: Pilkey, O.H., and W.J. Neal, (Series eds.): Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 393 p.
  • Nordstrom, K.F., et al., 1986, Living with the New Jersey Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 191 p.
  • Nummedal, D., O.H. Pilkey, and J.D. Howard (eds.), 1987, Sea Level Rise and Coastal Evolution (Armstrong Price Symposium): Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication #41, 266 p.
  • Carter, C., et al., 1987, Living with the Lake Erie Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 263 p.
    Kraus, N.C., and O.H. Pilkey (eds.), 1988, The Effects of Seawalls on the Beach: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue #4, 146 p.
  • Kelley, J.T., A.R. Kelley, and O.H. Pilkey, 1989, Living with the Coast of Maine: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 174 p.
  • Ward, L.G., P.S. Rosen, W.J. Neal, O.H. Pilkey, Jr., O.H. Pilkey, Sr., G.L. Anderson, and
    S.J. Howie, 1989, Living with the Chesapeake Bay and Virginia’s Ocean Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 236 p.
  • Finkl, C., and O.H. Pilkey (eds.), 1991, The Impacts of Hurricane Hugo: Sept. 10-22, 1989: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue #8.
  • Clayton, T.D., et al., 1992, Living with the Georgia Shore: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 188 p.
  • Patton, P.C., and J.M. Kent, 1992, A Moveable Shore: The Fate of the Connecticut Coast: Pilkey, O.H., and W.J. Neal (eds.), Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 143 p.
  • Bush, D.M., et al., 1995, Living with the Puerto Rico Shore: Pilkey, O.H., and W.J. Neal (eds.), Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 193 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and K.L. Dixon, 1996, The Corps and the Shore: Island Press, Washington, DC, 272 p.
  • Bush, D.M., O.H. Pilkey, and W.J. Neal, 1996, Living by the Rules of the Sea, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 179 p.
  • Lennon, J., W.J. Neal, D.M. Bush, O.H. Pilkey, M.L. Stutz, and J. Bullock, 1996, Living with the South Carolina Coast: 2nd Edition (revised), Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 241 p.
  • Mason, O., O.H. Pilkey, and W.J. Neal, 1996, Living with the Alaska Coast: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 348 p.
  • Komar, P.D., 1997, The Pacific Northwest Coast, Living with the Shores of Oregon and Washington:
  • Pilkey, O.H., and W.J. Neal (eds.), Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 195 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., W.J. Neal, S.R. Riggs, C.A. Webb, D.M. Bush, J. Bullock, and B. Cowan, 1998, The North Carolina Shore and Its Barrier Islands: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 318 p.
  • Bush, D.M., N.J. Longo, W.J. Neal, L.S. Esteves, O.H. Pilkey, D.F. Pilkey, and C.A. Webb, 2001, Living on the Edge of the Gulf: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 340 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and M.E. Fraser, 2003, A Celebration of the World’s Barrier Islands: Columbia University Press, New York, NY, 309 p.
  • Bush, D.M., W.J. Neal, N.J. Longo, et al., 2004, Living with Florida’s Atlantic Beaches: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 338 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., T.M. Rice, and W.J. Neal, 2004, How to Read a North Carolina Beach: Bubble Holes, Barking Sands, and Rippled Runnels: A beachcomber’s guide to curiosities along the shore: University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 162 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and L. Pilkey-Jarvis, 2007, Useless Arithmetic: Why Environmental Scientists Can’t Predict the Future: New York, Columbia University Press, 230 p.
  • Neal, W.J., O.H. Pilkey, and J.T. Kelley, 2007, Atlantic Coast Beaches: A Guide to Ripples, Dunes, and Other Natural Features of the Seashore: Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, MT, 250 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and R. Young, 2009, The Rising Sea: Island Press, Washington, DC, 203 p.
  • Kelley, J.T., Pilkey, O.H., and Cooper, J.A.G. (eds.), 2009, America’s Most Vulnerable Coastal Communities: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 460, 179 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Neal, W.J., Kelley, J.T., and Cooper, J.A.G., 2011, The World’s Beaches: A Global Guide to the Science of the Shoreline: University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 355 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Pilkey, K.C., 2011, Global Climate Change: A Primer: Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 142 p.
  • Cooper, J.A.G. and Pilkey, O.H. (eds.), (in press), Pitfalls of Shoreline Stabilization: Selected Case Studies: Springer.

VIDEOS

  • The Beaches Are Moving (1992), 1 hour North Carolina PBS production, produced by Michael Sheehan.
  • Living on the Edge (1996), 1 hour production by Environmental Media, Inc.
  • Dynamic Shorelines (©2009); (7:30): part of Physical Geology online (distance learning course), produced by Dallas TeleLearning, Dallas County Community College District (Texas): Lynn Millwood, Ph.D. (editor), Craig Mayes (Executive Producer).

ARTICLES

  • Pilkey, O.H., and Hower, J., 1960, The effect of environment on the concentration of skeletal magnesium and strontium in Dendraster: Journal of Geology, v. 68, no. 2, p. 203-216.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Gorsline, D.S., 1961, Recent root casts in sediments of the Apalachicola Delta, Florida: Southeastern Geology, v. 3, p. 37-47.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Goodell, H.G., 1963, Trace elements in Recent mollusk shells: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 8, no. 2, p.137-148.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1963, Heavy minerals of the U. S. South Atlantic continental shelf and slope. Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 74, p. 641-648.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1964, Mineralogy of the fine fraction in certain carbonate cores: Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean, v. 14, p. 126-139.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Richter, D.M., 1964, Beach profiles of a Georgia barrier island: Southeastern Geology, v. 6, p. 11-19.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1964, The size distribution and mineralogy of the carbonate fraction of United States South Atlantic shelf and upper slope sediments: Marine Geology, v. 2, p. 121-136.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Frankenburg, D., 1964, The relict-Recent sediment boundary on the Georgia continental shelf: Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science, v. XXII (January), p. 37-40.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Goodell, H.G., 1964, Comparison of the composition of fossil and Recent mollusk shells: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 75, p. 217-228.
  • Giles, R.T. and Pilkey, O.H., 1965, Atlantic beach and dune sediments of the southern United States: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 35(4), p. 900-910.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Giles, R.T., 1965, Bottom topography of the Georgia continental shelf: Southeastern Geology, v. 7, p. 15-18.
  • Stewart, R.A., Pilkey, O.H. and Nelson, B.W., 1965, Sediments of the Northern Arabian Sea: Marine Geology, v. 3, p. 411-427.
  • Harriss, R.C. and Pilkey, O.H., 1966, Interstitial waters of some deep marine carbonate sediments: Deep Sea Research, v. 13, p. 967-969.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Harriss, R.C., 1966, The effect of intertidal environment on the composition of calcareous skeletal material: Limnology and Oceanography, v. 11, no. 3, p. 381-385.
    Pilkey, O.H. and Noble, D., 1966, Carbonate and clay mineralogy of the Persian Gulf: Deep Sea Research, v. 13, p. 1-16.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Rucker, J.B., 1966, Mineralogy of Tongue of the Ocean sediments: Journal of Marine Research, v. 24, p. 276-285.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Schnitker, D. and Pevear, D.R., 1966, Oolites on the Georgia continental shelf edge: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 36(2), p. 462-467.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Terlecky, P. M., 1966, Distribution of surface sediments on the Georgia continental shelf, in Pleistocene and Holocene Sediments, Sapelo Island, Georgia and Vicinity: Geological Society of America, Southeastern Section, Field trip #1, p. 28-39.
  • Harriss, R.C., and Pilkey, O.H., 1966, Temperature and salinity control of the concentration of skeletal Na, Mn, and Fe in Dendraster excentricus: Pacific Science, v. XX, no. 2, p. 235-238.
  • Heezen, B.C., Schneider, E.D., and Pilkey, O.H., 1966, Sediment transport by the Antarctic bottom current on the Bermuda Rise: Nature, v. 211, p. 611-612.
  • Pevear, D.R., and Pilkey, O.H., 1966, Phosphorite in Georgia continental shelf sediments: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 77, p. 849-858.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Luternauer, J.L., 1966, North Carolina Frying Pan Phosphate sands: Geo Marine Technology, v. 2, p. 24-25.
  • Stewart, R.A., and Pilkey, O.H., 1966, Sediments of the Northern Arabian Sea: Washington, D.C., Ocean Surveys Division, U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) Technical Report 186, 28 p.
  • Menzies, R.J., Pilkey, O.H., Blackwelder, B.W., Dexter, D., et al., 1966, A submerged reef off North Carolina: Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie, v. 51, no. 3, p. 393-431.
  • Luternauer, J.L., and Pilkey, O.H., 1967, Phosphorite grains: Their application to the interpretation of North Carolina shelf sedimentation: Marine Geology, v. 5, p. 315-320.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Luternauer, J.L., 1967, A North Carolina shelf phosphate deposit of possible commercial interest: Southeastern Geology, v. 8, p. 33-51.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Morton, R.W., and Luternauer, J.L., 1967, The carbonate fraction of beach and dune sands: Sedimentology, v. 8, p. 311-327.
  • Cleary, W.J., and Pilkey, O.H., 1968, Sedimentation in Onslow Bay: Southeastern Geology Special Publication No. 1, p. 1-17.
  • Doyle, L.J., Cleary, W.J., and Pilkey, O.H., 1968, Mica: its use in determining shelf depositional regimes: Marine Geology, v. 6, p. 381-389.
  • Milliman, J.D., Pilkey, O.H., and Blackwelder, B.W., 1968, Carbonate Sedimentation on the continental shelf, Cape Hatteras to Cape Romain: Southeastern Geology, v. 9, p. 245-267.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1968, Sedimentation processes on the Atlantic Southeastern United States continental shelf: Maritime Sediments, v. 4, no. 2, p. 49-51.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Blackwelder, B.W., 1968, Mineralogy of the sand size carbonate fraction of some Recent marine terrigenous and carbonate sediments: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 38, no. 3, p. 799-810.
  • Field, M.E., and Pilkey, O.H., 1969, Feldspar in Atlantic continental margin sands off the southeastern United States: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 80, p. 2097-2102.
  • Macintyre, I.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 1969, Tropical reef corals: tolerance of low temperatures on the North Carolina continental shelf: Science, v. 166, p. 374-375.
  • Macintyre, I.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 1969, Preliminary comments on linear sand-surface features, Onslow Bay, North Carolina continental shelf: Problems in making detailed sea-floor observations: Maritime Sediments, v. 5, p. 26-29.
  • Newton, J.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 1969, Topography of the continental margin off the Carolinas: Southeastern Geology, v. 10, p. 87-92.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Blackwelder, B.W., Doyle, L.J., and Estes, E.L., 1969, Environmental significance of the physical attributes of calcareous sedimentary particles: Transactions of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. XIX, p. 113-114.
  • Pilkey, O.H, Blackwelder, B.W., Doyle, L.J., Estes, E.L., and Terlecky, P.M., 1969, Aspects of carbonate sedimentation on the Atlantic continental shelf off the southern United States: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 39, no. 2, p. 744-768.
  • Ragland, P.C., Pilkey, O.H., and Blackwelder, B.W., 1969, Comparison of the Sr/Ca ratio of fossil and Recent mollusc shells: Nature, v. 224, no. 5225, p. 1223-1224.
  • Field, M.E., and Pilkey, O.H., 1970, Lithification of deep sea sediments by pyrite: Nature, v. 226, no. 5248, p. 836-837.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Bornhold, B.D., 1970, Gold distribution on the Carolina continental margin — a preliminary report: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 700-C, p. C30-C34.
  • Judd, J.B., Smith, W.C., and Pilkey, O.H., 1970, The environmental significance of ironstained quartz grains on the southeastern United States Atlantic Shelf: Marine Geology,
    v. 8, p. 355-362.
  • Bornhold, B.D., and Pilkey, O.H., 1971, Bioclastic turbidite sedimentation in Columbus Basin, Bahamas: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 82, p. 1341-1354.
  • Field, M.E., and Pilkey, O.H., 1971, Deposition of deep-sea sands: Comparison of two areas of the Carolina continental rise: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 41, no. 2, p. 526-536.
  • Froelich, P., Golden, B., and Pilkey, O.H., 1971, Organic carbon in sediments of the North Carolina continental rise: Southeastern Geology, v. 13, no. 2, p. 91-97.
  • Kier, J.S., and Pilkey, O.H., 1971, The influence of sea level changes on sediment carbonate mineralogy, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas: Marine Geology, v. 11, p. 189-200.
  • Pilkey, O.H, Macintyre, I.G., and Uchupi, E., 1971, Shallow structures: shelf edge of continental margin between Cape Hatteras and Cape Fear, North Carolina: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 55, no. 1, p. 110-115.
  • Rodolfo, K.A., Buss, B.A., and Pilkey, O.H., 1971, Suspended sediment increase due to Hurricane Gerda in continental shelf waters off Cape Lookout, North Carolina: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 41, no. 4, p. 1121-1125.
  • Milliman, J.D., Pilkey, O.H., and Ross, D.A., 1972, Sediments of the continental margin off the eastern United States: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 83, p. 1315-1334.
  • Molnia, B.F., and Pilkey, O.H., 1972, Origin and distribution of calcareous fines on the Carolina continental shelf: Sedimentology, v. 18, p. 293-310.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1972, Barium: Element and geochemistry: in Fairbridge (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, p. 62-63.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1972, Calcium: Element and geochemistry: in Fairbridge (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, p. 100-103.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Field, M.E., 1972, Lower continental rise east of the middle Atlantic states: predominant sediment dispersal perpendicular to isobaths: discussion: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 83, p. 3537-3538.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Field, M.E., 1972, Onshore transportation of continental shelf sediment: Atlantic southeastern United States: in Swift, Duane, and Pilkey (eds.), Shelf Sediment Transport: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pa., p. 429-446.
  • Polifka, J., Pilkey, O.H., Kier, J.S., and Atwood, D., 1972, Sea floor compositional changes in calcareous skeletal material: Nature, v. 240, p. 89-90.
  • Watkins, J.A., and Pilkey, O.H., 1972, Le Sable des Plages Tunisiennes: Note du Service Geologique, #39, Republique Tunisienne, Ministere de l’Economie Nationale, Direction des Mines et de l’Energie, 41 p.
  • Blackwelder, P.L., and Pilkey, O.H., 1972, Electron Microscopy of Quartz Grain Surface Textures: The U.S. Eastern Atlantic Continental Margin. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 42, no. 3, p. 520-526.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1974, Let the Lighthouse Fall In: The High School Journal, v. 8, p. 1-10.
  • Doyle, L.J., Pilkey, O.H., Hayward, G.L., and Arbogast, J.S., 1975, Sedimentation on the Northeastern Continental Slope of the United States: Proceedings of IXth International Congress of Sedimentology, Theme 6, p. 51-56.
  • Fritz, S.J., and Pilkey, O.H., 1975, Distinguishing bottom and turbidity current coarse layers on the Continental Rise: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 45, p. 57-62.v
  • Klasik, J.A., and Pilkey, O.H., 1975, Processes of sedimentation on the Atlantic Continental Rise off the Southeastern U.S.: Marine Geology, v. 19, p. 69-89.
  • Morton, R.A., Galvin, C.J., Jr., Howard, J.D., Moseley, J.C., Pilkey, O.H., et al., 1975, Impact of Barrier-Island Development – Geologic Problems and Practical Solutions: Report of the Committee on Environment and Public Policy, The Geological Society of America, 8 p.
  • Bennetts, K.R.W., and Pilkey, O.H., 1976, Characteristics of three turbidites, Hispaniola-Caicos Basin: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 87, p. 1291-1300.
  • Harbridge, W., Pilkey, O.H., Whaling, P., and Swetland, P., 1976, Sedimentation in the Lake of Tunis: a lagoon strongly influenced by man: Environmental Geology, v. 1, p. 215-225.
  • Mixon, R., and Pilkey, O.H., 1976, Geology of the Cape Lookout Quadrangle: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 859.
  • Schneidermann, N., Pilkey, O.H., and Saunders, C. 1976, Sedimentation on the Puerto Rico insular shelf: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 46, p. 167-173.
  • Seiglie, G.A., Froelich, P.N., and Pilkey, O.H., 1976, Deep-sea sediments of Navidad Basin: correlation of sand layers: Deep-Sea Research, v. 23, p. 89-101.
  • Watkins, J. A., Pilkey, O.H., and Cleary, W. J., 1977, Petrology and origin of beach sands of Tunisia: Egyptian Journal of Geology, v. 21, no. 2, p. 159-176.
  • Cleary, W.J., and Pilkey, O.H., 1977, Morphology and sediments of three ocean basin entry points, Hatteras Abyssal Plain: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 47, no. 3, p. 1157-1170.
  • Ditty, P.S., Harmon, C.J., Pilkey, O.H., Ball, M.M., and Richardson, E.S., 1977, Mixed terrigenous-carbonate sedimentation in the Hispaniola-Caicos turbidite basin: Marine Geology, v. 24, p. 1-20.
  • Macintyre, I.G., Pilkey, O.H., and Stuckenrath, R., 1978, Relict oysters on the United States Atlantic Continental Shelf: A reconsideration of their usefulness in understanding late Quaternary sea-level history: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 89, p. 277-282.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Trumbull, J.V.A., and Bush, D.M., 1978, Equilibrium shelf sedimentation, Rio de La Plata Shelf, Puerto Rico: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 48, no. 2, p. 389-400.
  • Thornton, S.E., Pilkey, O.H., and Lynts, G.W., 1978, A lagoonal crustose coralline algal micro-ridge: Bahiret el Bibane, Tunisia: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 48, no. 3, p. 743-750.
  • Pilkey, S., and Pilkey, O., 1978, Research Vessel Eastward – Fifteen Years of Service: The Office of University Publications, Duke University, 48 p.
  • Blackwelder, B.W., Pilkey, O.H., and Howard, J. D., 1979, Late Wisconsinan sea levels on the southeast U.S. Atlantic shelf based on in-place shoreline indicators: Science, v. 204, p. 618-620.
  • Chu, F.H., Pilkey, W.D., and Pilkey, O.H., 1979, An Analytical Study of Turbidity Current Steady Flow: Marine Geology, v. 33, p. 205-220.
  • Doyle, L.J., Pilkey, O.H., and Woo, C.C., 1979, Sedimentation on the eastern United States continental slope; in Doyle, L.J. and Pilkey, O.H. (eds.), Geology of continental slopes: Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 27, p. 119-129.
  • Elmore, R.D., Pilkey, O.H., Cleary, W.J., and Curran, H.A., 1979, Black Shell turbidite, Hatteras abyssal Plain, Western North Atlantic Ocean: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 90, p. 1165-1176.
  • Macintyre, I.G., Pilkey, O.H., and Stuckenrath, R., 1979, Relict oysters on the United States Atlantic continental shelf: A reconsideration of their usefulness in understanding late Quaternary sea-level history: Reply (to Discussion by K.O. Emery and A.S. Merrill):Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 90, pt. 1, p. 689-694.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Fierman, E.I., and Trumbull, J.V.A., 1979, Relationship between physical condition of the carbonate fraction and sediment environments, Northern Puerto Rico Shelf: Sedimentary Geology, v. 24, p. 283-290.
  • Ragland, P.C., Pilkey, O.H., and Blackwelder, B.W., 1979, Diagenetic changes in the elemental composition of unrecrystallized mollusk shells: Chemical Geology, v. 25, p. 123-134.
  • Thornton, S.E., Pilkey, O.H., Doyle, L.J., and Whaling, P.J., 1980, Holocene evolution of a coastal lagoon, Lake of Tunis, Tunisia: Sedimentology, v. 27, p. 79-91.
  • Chu, F.H., Pilkey, O.H., and Pilkey, W.D., 1980, A turbidity current model: Civil Engineering in the Oceans IV, p. 416-432.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Locker, S.D., and Cleary, W.J., 1980, Comparison of sand-layer geometry on flat floors of 10 modern depositional basins: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 64, no. 6, p. 841-856.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Neal, W. J., 1980, Barrier island hazard mapping: Oceanus, v. 23, no. 4, p. 38-46.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1980, The Barrier Islands: Outdoor America, v. 45, no. 4, p. 6-9.
  • Leonard, J.E., Cameron, B., Pilkey, O.H., and Friedman, G.M., 1981, Evaluation of cold-water carbonates as a possible paleoclimatic indicator: Sedimentary Geology, v. 28, p. 1-28.
  • Park, Y.A., and Pilkey, O.H., 1981, Detrital Mica: Environmental Significance of roundness and grain surface textures: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 51, no. 1, p. 113-120.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1981, Geologists, engineers and a rising sea level: in Leonard, J.E. and Maurmeyer, E. (eds.), Coastal and Nearshore Processes of the Western Atlantic: Northeastern Geology, v. 3, nos. 3 & 4, p. 150-158.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1981, Geologists, Engineers, Barrier Islands and the Rising Sea Level: Duke University Letters #17 (Jan. 28), Durham, N.C.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1981, America’s beaches: an endangered species? Sea Grant Today, v. 11, no. 6, p. 14-16.
  • Neal, W.J., Pilkey, O.H., and Imperato, P.O., 1981, Oregon Inlet: Outdoor America, p. 12-14.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Evans, M., 1981, Rising Sea, Shifting Shores: in Reische, D., and Jackson, T.C. (eds.), Coast Alert: Scientists Speak Out: Friends of the Earth, Coast Alliance, San Francisco, CA, p. 14-47.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Myers, C., 1981, Barrier Islands — Our Most Dynamic Real Estate: Earth Science, (Fall), v. 34, p. 20-23.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Blackwelder, B.W., Knebel, H., and Ayers, M.W., 1981, The Georgia embayment continental shelf: stratigraphy of a submergence: Geological Society of America Bulletin, Part I, v. 92, p. 52-63.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and 10 others, 1981, Saving the American Beach: A position paper by concerned coastal geologists: Privately circulated to the media and signed by two-thirds of the coastal geology community. Paper was reprinted or discussed in Science Magazine, Geotimes, and Shore and Beach.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Wilcox, M., 1981, Citation analysis of principal sedimentary journals: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 50, p. 1044-1045.
  • Blackwelder, B.W., Macintyre, I.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 1982, Geology of Continental Shelf, Onslow Bay, North Carolina, as revealed by Submarine Outcrops: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 66, p. 44-56.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1982, Saving the American Beach: Impact of the Position Paper: in Rukavina, N.A. (ed.): Proceedings, Third Workshop on Great Lakes Coastal Erosion and Sedimentation: Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario, Nov. 1-2, 1982, p. 7-10.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1982, Shoreline Research: in Brewer, P. (ed.), Oceanography: The Present and the Future, Woods Hole 50th Anniversary Volume: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 87-100.
  • Mazzullo, J., Ehrlich, R., and Pilkey, O.H., 1982, Local and Distal origin of sands in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain: Marine Geology, v. 48, p. 75-88.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1982, Indian Estuaries need study: Geotimes, p. 21-23.
  • Grove, K.A., Pilkey, O.H., and Trumbull, J.V.A., 1982, Mud transportation on a steep shelf, Rio de la Plata shelf, Puerto Rico: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 2; p. 71-75.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Evans, M., 1982, Rising Seas, Shifting Shores: Trying to Stop the Sea: Oceans, v. 15, no. 1, p. 65-69.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Myers, C., 1982, Man vs. Barrier Islands: Earth Science, v. 35, 15-19.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Neal, W.J., 1982, The Folly of Stabilizing Oregon Inlet: Southern Exposure, v. X, p. 10-12.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Neal, W.J., 1983, Man vs. the sea at the shore: in Ragotzkie, R.A. (ed.), Man and the Marine Environment: CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, p. 101-118.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1983, The eroding shores and the disappearing beach: Geophysics: The Leading Edge of Exploration; April, p. 50-53.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1983, Preserving our beaches — a reply: Sea Grant Today, v. 13, no. 3, p. 8.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1983, Editorial: A look back: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 53, p. 351-352.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Lincoln, R., 1984, Insular shelf heavy mineral partitioning in Northern Puerto Rico: Marine Mining, v. 4, no. 4, p. 403-414.
  • Dias, J.M.A., Pilkey, O.H., and Heilweil, V.M., 1984, Detrital Mica: Environmental significance in North Portugal continental shelf sediments: Comunicacoes dos Servicos Geologicos de Portugal, t. 70, Fasc. 1, p. 93-101.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Bush, D.M., and Rodriquez, R.W., 1984, Storm sedimentation, North Shelf of Puerto Rico: in Park, Y.A., Pilkey, O.H. and Kim, S.W. (eds.), Marine Geology and Physical Processes of the Yellow Sea: Proceedings of Korea-U.S. Seminar and Workshop, Seoul, Korea, p. 242-259.
  • Cleary, W.T., Pilkey, O.H., and Nelson, J.C., 1985, Wilmington Fan, Atlantic Ocean: in Bouma, A.H., Barnes, N.E., Normark, W.R. (eds.), Submarine Fans and Related Turbidite Sequences: Bouma, A.H. (series ed.), Frontiers in Sedimentary Geology: Springer-Verlag, New York, p. 157-164.
  • Howard, J.D., Kaufman, W., and Pilkey, O.H., 1985, National Strategy for Beach Preservation: Position paper #2 co-authored by 10 other specialists, Second Skidaway Institute of Oceanography Conference on America’s Eroding Shoreline, privately circulated, 11 p.; also 1985, Journal of Coastal Research, v. 1, no. 4, p. 404-411.
  • Pilkey, W.D., and Pilkey, O.H, 1985, Are we ready to consider shoreline buildings as being expendable? in McGrath, J. (ed.), California’s Battered Coast: California Coastal Commission, p. 243-250.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1985, Living with coastal hazards: in Striking a Balance: Reflections on Ten Years of Managing the North Carolina Coast: North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, Division of Coastal Management, p. 20-24.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Cleary, W.J., 1986, Turbidite sedimentation in the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean Basin: in Vogt, P.R. and Tucholke, B.E. (eds.), The Geology of North America, Vol. M, The Western North Atlantic Region: Geological Society of America, (Chapter 26), p. 437-450.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Curran, H.A., 1986, Molluscan Shell Transport: You Ain’t Seen Nothin’ Yet: Palaios, v. 1, p. 197.
  • Katz, S.D., and Pilkey, O.H., 1987, An analysis of detrital mica grain morphology in two North Carolina fluvial networks: in Marshall, J.R. (ed.), Clastic Particles: Scanning Electron Microscopy and Shape Analysis of Sedimentary and Volcanic Clasts: Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, (Chapter 6), p. 328-339.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1987, Sedimentology of basin plains: in Weaver, P.P.E. and Thomson, J. (eds.), Geology and Geochemistry of Abyssal Plains: Geological Society (London), Special Publication #31, p. 1-12.v
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1987, A time for retreat: in Platt, R.H., Pelezarki, S.C., Burbank, B.K.R. (eds.), Cities On The Beach: Management Issues of Developed Coastal Barriers: University of Chicago, Department of Geography, Research Paper #224, p. 275-280.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Clayton, T.D., 1987, Beach replenishment: The National Solution? Coastal Zone 87, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 1408-1420.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Neal, W.J., 1987, Living with the Shore — Hazard Mitigation through Education: Coastal Zone 87, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 4794-4808.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Bush, D.M., and Rodriquez, R.W., 1987, Bottom sediment types of the Northern Insular Shelf of Puerto Rico, Punta Penon to Punta Salinas: U.S. Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Investigations Series, Map I-1861.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Bush, D.M., and Rodriquez, R.W., 1987, Carbonate-terrigenous sedimentation on the North Puerto Rico Shelf: in Doyle, L.J. (ed.), Mixed Carbonate-Non-Carbonate Depositional Environments: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, p. 231-250.
  • Prince, C.M., Elmore, R.D., Ehrlich, R., and Pilkey, O.H., 1987, Aerial and Lateral Changes in a major trailing margin Turbidite — The Black Shell Turbidite: Geo-Marine Letters, v. 7, p. 103-112.
    Pilkey, O.H., 1987, Don’t stop the ocean, move the light: Washington Post, Outpost Section, Jan. 4, p. c-3.
  • Pilkey, O., 1987, Move It or Lose It: Oceans, v. 20, no. 2, p. 23-56.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Davis, T.W., 1987, An analysis of Coastal Recession Models: North Carolina Coast, in Nummedal, D., Pilkey, O.H., and Howard, J.D. (eds.), Sea Level Rise and Coastal Evolution: The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists (SEPM) Special Publication #41, p. 59-68.
  • Martinez, J.O. and Pilkey, O., 1987, Estado actual y perspectivas de solucion referente a la erosion de las playas de Cartagena. Ingeominas, Direccion Regional Cartagena: Republica de Colombia Ministerio de Minas y Energia, Instituto Nacional de investigaciones geologico-mineras, 22 p.v
  • Leonard, L.A., Pilkey, O.H., Jr., and Clayton, T.D., 1988, An assessment of beach replenishment parameters, in Tait, L.S. ( ed.), Beach Preservation Technology 88: Problems and Advancements in Beach Nourishment, Florida State & Beach Preservation Association, Tallahassee, FL, p. 115-124.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1988, Basin Plains: Giant Sedimentation events: in Clifton, H.E. (ed.), Cataclysmic Events: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 229, p. 93-100.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1988, A “Thumbnail Method” for Beach Communities: Estimation of Long-Term Beach Replenishment Requirements: Shore and Beach, v. 56, p. 23-31.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Neal, W.J., 1988, Coastal Geologic Hazards: in Sheridan, R.E. and Grow, J.A. (eds.), The Geology of North America, v. 1-2, The Atlantic Continental Margin, U.S.: Geological Society of America, DNAG volume, p. 549-556.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Neal, W.J., and Clayton, T.D., 1988, Policy conflicts in the management of retreating shorelines: NRC, Water Board Colloquium, Future of Great Lakes Shorelines: National Academy of Sciences Press, p. 59-75.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Wright, H.L., 1988, Seawalls versus beaches: in Kraus, N.C. and
    Pilkey, O.H. (eds.), The Effects of Seawalls on the Beach, Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue #4, p. 41-64.
  • Dean, R.G., Pilkey, O.H., Jr., Houston, J.R., 1988, Eroding Shorelines Impose Costly Choices. Geotimes, v. 33, no. 5, p. 9-14.
  • Thieler, E.R., Bush, D.M., and Pilkey, O.H., Jr., 1989, Shoreline response to hurricane Gilbert: Lessons for coastal management, in Magoon, O.T., et al. (eds.), Coastal Zone ’89, Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 765-775.
    Wright, H.L., III, and Pilkey, O.H., Jr., 1989, The effects of hard stabilization upon dry beach width, in Magoon, O.T., et al. (eds.), Coastal Zone ’89. American Society of Civil
    Engineers, New York, p. 776-790.
  • Leonard, L.A., Dixon, K.L., and Pilkey, O.H., 1989, U.S. beach replenishment experience: A comparison of the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf coasts: in Magoon, O.T., et al. (eds.), Coastal Zone ’89. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, p. 1994- 2005.
  • Dixon, K.L., and Pilkey, O.H., Jr., 1989, Beach replenishment along the U.S. coast of the Gulf of Mexico, in Magoon, O.T., et al. (eds.), Coastal Zone ’89. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, p. 2007-2020.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1989, The engineering of sand: Journal of Geological Education, v. 37, p. 308-311.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Clayton, T.D., 1989, Summary of beach replenishment experience on U.S. East Coast barrier islands: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 5, p. 147-159.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Heron, D., et al., 1989, The sedimentology of three Tunisian lagoons: in Ward, L. and Ashley, G. (eds.), Lagoons: Marine Geology, v. 88, p. 285-301.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Jr., Morton, R.A., Kelley, J.T., and Penland, S., 1989, Coastal Land Loss, Vol. II: American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 195 p.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Neal, W.J., Monteiro, J.H., and Dias, J.M.A., 1989, Algarve barrier islands: a non coastal plain system: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 5, p. 239-261.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Zabawa, C., 1989, Shoreline Erosion in the Upper Chesapeake Bay: Field Trip Guidebook T233, 28th International Geological Congress, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 13 p.
  • Hall, M.J., Young, R.S., Thieler, E.R., Priddy, R.D., and Pilkey, O.H., 1990, Shoreline response to Hurricane Hugo: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 6, p. 211-221.
  • Leonard, L.A., Clayton, T.D., and Pilkey, O.H., Jr., 1990, An analysis of replenished beach design parameters on U.S. East Coast barrier islands. Journal of Coastal Research, v. 6, p. 15-36.
  • Leonard, L.A., Dixon, K.L., and Pilkey, O.H., Jr., 1990, A comparison of beach replenishment on the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts, in Schwartz, M.L. and Bird, E.C.F. (eds.), Artificial Beaches: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue #6, p. 127- 140.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1990, A time to look back at beach replenishment: Editorial: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 6, iii-vii.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Leonard, L.A., 1990, Reply to the Per Bruun discussion: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 6, p. 1059.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Leonard, L.A., 1990, Reply to the Houston discussion: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 6, p. 1047-1057.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Leonard, L.A., 1990, Reply to the Smith discussion: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 6, p. 1061-1062.
  • Martinez, J.O., Pilkey, O.H., and Neal, W.J., 1990, Rapid formation of large coastal sand bodies after emplacement of Magdalena River Jetties, Northern Colombia: Environmental Geology and Water Sciences, v. 16, no. 3, p. 187-194.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1990, Barrier Islands: Sea Frontiers, v. 36, December, p. 30-36. Pilkey, O.H., 1990, Truth in Science: Vertices, p. 7 and 38.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Bush, D.M., 1990, Eroding shorelines: No simple solution: Sea Wind, v. 4, p. 3-6.
    Dixon, K.L., and Pilkey, O.H., Jr., 1991, Summary of beach replenishment experience on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico shoreline: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 7, p. 249-256.
  • Hall, M.J. and Pilkey, O.H., 1991, Effects of Hard Stabilization on Dry Beach Width for New Jersey: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 7, no. 3, p. 771-785.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Hokanson, C., 1991, A Proposed Classification of Basin Plains, in Shepherd (ed.), From Shoreline to Abyss: SEPM Special Publication no. 46, p. 249-257.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1991, Coastal Erosion: Episodes, v. 14, p. 46-51.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1991, A tale of 6 societies: Overview: The Florida Planning and Zoning Association.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Leonard, L.A., 1991, Reply to Houston (again): Journal of Coastal Research, v. 7, p. 879-894.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Neal, W.J., 1991, Realism in Response to Shoreline Erosion Problems: A Call for a New World Order. Proceedings of the International Meeting (Nantes, France): Coastal Protection, International Experience and Prospects, Special Issue, 10 p.
  • Neal, W.J. and Pilkey, O.H., 1991, Beach Mining: economic development/ environmental crisis: Sea Wind, v. 5, p. 3-8.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1992, Another view of beachfill performance: Shore and Beach (April), p. 20-25.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Neal, W.J., 1992, Save beaches, not buildings: Issues in Science and Technology (Spring), p. 36-41.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Jr. and Thieler, E.R., 1992, Erosion of the United States shoreline: SEPM Special Publication #48 (Quaternary Coasts of the United States; Marine and Lacustrine Systems), p. 3-7.
  • Thieler, E.R., Young, R.S., and Pilkey, O.H., 1992, Discussion of: “Boundary conditions and long-term shoreline change rates for the southern Virginia ocean coastline: Discussion:” Shore and Beach, October, p. 29-34.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1993, Can we predict the behavior of sand in a time and volume framework of use to human kind? Editorial: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 9, p. iii-iv.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Young, R.S., Riggs, S.R., Smith, A.W.S., Wu, H., and Pilkey, W.D., 1993, The concept of shoreface profile of equilibrium: A critical review: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 9, p. 255-278.
  • Pilkey, O.H., et al., 1993, Reply to discussion of shoreface profile of equilibrium papers by R. Dubois: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 9, p. 1146-1148.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1994, Consulting and Academia — The Enemy Within? Geotimes (September), p. 4.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Young, R.S., Bush, D.M., Thieler, E.R., 1994, Predicting the Behavior of Beaches: Alternatives to Models: Littoral, v. 94, p. 53-60.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1994, Mathematical Modeling of Beach Behavior Doesn’t Work: Journal of Geological Education, v. 42, p. 358-361.
  • Bush, D.M., Pilkey, O.H., 1995, Mitigation of hurricane property damage on barrier islands: a geological view: Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue #12, Coastal Hazards, p. 311-325.
  • Young, R.S., Pilkey, O.H., Bush, D.M., and Thieler, E.R., 1995, A discussion of the generalized model for simulating shoreline change (GENESIS): Journal of Coastal Research, v. 11, p. 875-886.
  • Martinez, J.O., Gonzalez, J.L., Pilkey, O.H., and Neal, W.J., 1995, Tropical Barrier Islands of Colombia’s Pacific Coast: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 11, no. 2, p. 432- 453.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1995, The Fox Guarding the Hen House (Editorial): Journal of Coastal Research, v. 11, iii-v.
  • Schneider, J., Shultz, S., and Pilkey, O., 1995, Late Quaternary Oyster Shells and Sea Level History, Inner Shelf, NW Gulf of Mexico: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 11, p. 664-674.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Dixon, K., 1995, Truths of the Shoreline: Bulletin of the American Littoral Society, v. 22, p. 5-11.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Thieler, E.R., 1996, Mathematical Modeling in Coastal Geology: Geotimes (December), p. 5.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Young, R.S., Thieler, E.R., Jacobs, B.S., Katuna, M.P., Lennon, G., and Moeller, M.E., 1996, Reply to: Houston, J.R., 1996. Discussion of: Young, R.S., Pilkey,
  • O.H., Bush, D.M., and Thieler, E.R., 1995, A Discussion of the Generalized Model for Simulating Shoreline Change (GENESIS), Journal of Coastal Research 11(3), p. 875- 886. Same volume: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 12(4), p. 1038-1043.
  • Young, R.S., Bush, D.M., Pilkey, O.H., Neal, W.J., 1996, Evaluating shoreline change and associated risk from coastal hazards: an inexpensive qualitative approach, in Berger, A.T. and W.J. Iams (eds.), Geoindicators Assessing Rapid Environmental Changes in Earth Systems: A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, p. 193-206.
  • Valverde, H., and Pilkey, O.H., 1996, Shoreline Stabilization in Onslow Bay: Carolina Geological Society Field-trip Guidebook, pp. 71-75.
  • Cleary, W.J., and Pilkey, O.H., 1996, Environmental Coastal Geology: Cape Lookout to Cape Fear, North Carolina: Regional Overview: Carolina Geological Society Field-trip Guidebook, p. 87-127.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 1997, Reply to Hillyer, T.M. and Stakhiv, E.Z., 1997, Discussion of: Pilkey, O.H., 1996. The Fox Guarding the Hen House (editorial), Journal of Coastal
    Research, v. 11(3), iii-v: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 13(1), p. 265-267.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Dixon, K.L., 1997, Review or Rebuttal? A Response to “Review of the Book The Corps and the Shore by O. Pilkey and K. Dixon” by James R. Houston and Robert Dean: Shore and Beach, January, p. 32-36.
  • Libbey, L.K., McQuarrie, M.E., Pilkey, O.H., et al., 1998, Another view of the maturity of our science: Shore and Beach, v. 66(4), p. 2-4.
  • Martinez, J.O., Gonzalez, J.L., Pilkey, O.H., Neal, W.J., 1998, Short-Term Evolution of Four Macrotidal, Leading-Edge Pacific Barrier Islands, Colombia, S.A.: Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue #26, p. 208-209.
  • Stutz, M.L., Smith, A.W. S., and Pilkey, O.H., 1998, Differing mechanisms of wave energy dissipation in the wave shoaling zone, surf zone, and swash zone: Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue #26, p. 214-218.
  • Trembanis, A.C., Valverde, H.R., Pilkey, O.H., 1998, Comparison of Beach Nourishment Along the U.S. Atlantic, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico and New England Shorelines: Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue #26, p. 246-251.
  • McQuarrie, M.E., Pilkey, O.H., 1998, Evaluation of Alternative or Non-traditional Shoreline Stabilization Devices: Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue #26, p. 269- 272.
  • Haddad, T.C., and Pilkey, O.H., 1998, Summary of the New England beach nourishment experience (1935-1996): Journal of Coastal Research, v. 14, no. 4, p. 1395-1404.
  • Trembanis, A.C., and Pilkey, O.H., 1998, Summary of beach nourishment along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico shoreline: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 14, no. 2, p. 407-417.
  • Stutz, M.L., and Pilkey, O.H., 1999, Discussion of: Wang, P., N.C. Kraus, and R.A. Davis: Total Longshore Sediment Transport Rate in the Surf Zone: Field Measurements and Empirical Predictions: Journal of Coastal Research, 14(1), 269-282: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 15(1), p. 272-274.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Thieler, E.R., Young, R.S., Bush, D.M., 1999, Reply to: Houston, J.R., Rejoinder to: Pilkey, O.H., Young, R.S., Thieler, E.R., Jacobs, B.S., Katuna, M.P.,
    Lennon, G., and Moeller, M.R., 1996. Reply to Houston, J.R., A discussion of the Generalized Model for Simulating Shoreline Change (GENESIS), Journal of Coastal Research, 12(4), 1044-1050; Ibid., 14(3), 1170-1173. Journal of Coastal Research, v. 15(1), p. 277-279.
  • Valverde, H.R., Trembanis, A.C., and Pilkey, O.H., 1999, Summary of Beach Nourishment Episodes on the U.S. East Coast Barrier Islands: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 15, no. 4, p. 1100-1118.
  • Bush, D.M., Neal, W.J., Young, R.S., and Pilkey, O.H., 1999, Utilization of Geoindicators for Rapid Assessment of Coastal-hazard Risk and Mitigation: Ocean and Coastal Management, v. 42, no. 8, p. 647-670.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Bush, D.M., and Neal, W.J., 1999, Storms and the Coast, in Pielke, R.A., Jr., and Pielke, R.A., Sr. (Eds.), Storms: Routledge Publishing, p. x-x.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Bush, D.M., and Neal, W.J., 1999, Lessons from Lighthouses: Shifting Sands, Coastal Management Strategies, and the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Controversy,
    in Schneiderman, J. (ed.), The Earth Around Us, p. 198-220.
  • Trembanis, A.C., Pilkey, O.H., and Valverde, H.R., 1999, Comparison of beach nourishment along the U.S. Atlantic, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, and New England shorelines: Coastal Management, v. 27, p. 329-340.
  • Thieler, E.R., Pilkey, O.H., Young, R.S., Bush, D.M., and Chai, F., 2000, The use of mathematical models to predict beach behavior for coastal engineering: a critical review: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 16(1), p. 48-70.
  • Martinez, J.O., Gonzalez, J.L., Pilkey, O.H., and Neal, W.J., 2000, Barrier island evolution on the subsiding Central Pacific Coast, Colombia, South America: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 16, no. 3, p. 663-674.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Stutz, M. 2000, Seawalls and Sandbags: Geotimes (Dec.), p. 26-27.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 2000, What you know can hurt you: Predicting the behavior of nourished beaches: in Sarewitz, D., Pielke, R.A., Jr., Byerly, R., Jr. (eds.), Prediction: Science, Decision Making, and the Future of Nature: Island Press, Washington, D.C., p. 159–184.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 2000, Geologists, Engineers and a rising sea level: in Goldfarb, T. (ed.), Notable Selections in Environmental Studies: Dushkin/McGraw Hill, p. 90–102.
  • Thieler, E.R., Pilkey, O.H., Cleary, W.J., and Schwab, W.C., 2001, Modern sedimentation on the shoreface and inner continental shelf at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, U.S.A.: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 71, no. 6, p. 958-970.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Hume, T, 2001, The Shoreline Erosion Problem: Lessons from the Past: Water and Atmosphere: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand, p. 22–24.
  • Stutz, M.L., and Pilkey, O.H., 2001, A review of global barrier island distribution: ICS 2000 Proceedings: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 34, p. 15-22.
  • Barnhardt, W.A., Gonzalez, R., Kelley, J.T., Neal, W.J., Pilkey, O.H., et al., 2002, Geologic evidence for the incorporation of flood tidal deltas at Tavira Island, southern Portugal: ICS 2002 Proceedings: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 36, p. 28-36.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2002, The Barrier Islands of Southern Mozambique: ICS 2002 proceedings: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 36, p. 164–172.
  • Pilkey, O. H., 2002, Longshore transport volumes: A critical view: ICS 2002 Proceedings:
    Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 36, p. 572-580.
  • Stutz, M.L., and Pilkey, O.H., 2002, Global distribution and morphology of deltaic barrier island systems: ICS 2002 Proceedings: Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue 36, p. 694–707.
  • Martinez, J.O., Gonzalez, J., Pilkey, O., and Neal, W., 2003, Evolución y consideraciones geoambientales de las islas barrera en el Pacífico central de Colombia. Memorias del Taller: “El Mundo Marino de Colombia y Territorios olvidados.” Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá), p. 97-109.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Cooper, J.A.G., 2004, Society and sea level rise: Science (19 Mar.), v. 303, p. 1781–1782.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2004, Questioning the rules in coastal erosion (letter to editor): Physics Today (August), p. 21-22.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2004, Longshore Drift: Trapped in an Expected Universe: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 74, p. 599-606.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Neal, W.J. and Bush, D.M., 2004, Coastal Erosion, in Isla, F.I., (ed.), Coastal Zones and Estuaries, Coastal Dynamics, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO. EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, UK (http://www.eolss.net).
  • Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2004, Alternatives to the mathematical modeling of beaches: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 20(3), p. 641-644.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2004, Sea level rise and shoreline retreat: time to abandon the Bruun Rule: Global and Planetary Change, v. 43, p. 157-171.
  • Neal, W.J., Bush, D.M., and Pilkey, O.H., 2005, Managed Retreat, in Schwartz, M.L. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Coastal Science: Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p. 602– 606; Springer, New York, NY, p. 745-749.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 2005, Foreword, in Schwartz, M.L. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Coastal Science: Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1211 p.
  • Lewis, D.A., Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2005, Fetch limited barrier islands of Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay: Journal of Southeastern Geology, v. 44, p. 1–17.
  • Stutz, M., and Pilkey, O.H., 2005, The relative influence of humans on barrier islands: humans versus geomorphology, in Ehlen, J., Haneberg, W.C., and Larson, R.A. (eds.) Humans as Geologic Agents: Reviews in Engineering Geology, Geological Society of America, p. 137-148.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Young, R.S., 2005, Editorial: Will Hurricane Katrina impact shoreline
    management? Here’s why it should: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 21(6), iii–ix. Pilkey, O., 2005, Eye of the Storm: Duke Magazine, v. 91, no. 4, p. 72.
  • Young, R.S., and Pilkey, O.H., 2006, Reply to: Simmons, H., 2006. Discussion of:
    Pilkey, O.H. and Young, R.S., 2005. Editorial: Will Hurricane Katrina Impact Shoreline Management? Here’s Why It Should: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 21(6), iii-ix. Journal of Coastal Research, v. 22(4), 1010-1012: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 22(4), p. 1013.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Cooper, J.A.G., 2006, Discussion of Cowell, et al., 2006, Management of uncertainty in predicting climate-change impacts on beaches, Journal of Coastal Research, 22(1), 232-245: Journal of Coastal Research v. 22(6), p. 1577-1579.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Coburn, A., 2006, Beach Nourishment: Is It Worth the Cost? – Perspective: Professional Dialog, NOAA Coastal Services Center, http://www.csc.noaa.gov/beachnourishment/html/human/dialog/series1a.htm.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Coburn, A., 2006, Beach Nourishment: Is It Worth the Cost? – Response: Professional Dialog, NOAA Coastal Services Center,http://www.csc.noaa.gov/beachnourishment/html/human/dialog/series1c.htm.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 2006, What I Did On My Summer Vacation, Beach Nourishment: Is It Worth the Cost? – Conclusion: Professional Dialog, NOAA Coastal Services Center, http://www.csc.noaa.gov/beachnourishment/html/human/dialog/series1d.htm.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Coburn, A., 2006, Beach Nourishment: It’s a Good Investment – Critique: Professional Dialog, NOAA Coastal Services Center, http://www.csc.noaa.gov/beachnourishment/html/human/dialog/series2b.htm.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 2006, The Coast Isn’t Clear: Grist Magazine: Environmental News and Commentary – Interactivist, Q&A with environmental foot soldiers: http://www.grist.org/comments/interactivist/2006/09/25/pilkey/index.html.
  • Pilkey, O.H., 2006, Orrin Relations: Grist Magazine: Environmental News and Commentary – Interactivist, Q&A with environmental foot soldiers: http://www.grist.org/comments/interactivist/2006/09/25/pilkey/index1.html.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Trembanis, A., 2007, In Memoriam (Sam Smith), Journal of Coastal Research 23(1), p. 282.
  • Pilkey, O., 2007, Beach Nourishment: Not the Answer: Business & Economic Review, Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, Division of Research, Columbia, SC, v. 53, no. 2, p. 7-8.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2007, Field measurement and quantification of longshore sediment transport: an unattainable goal? in Balson, P.S. and Collins, M.B. (eds.), Coastal and Shelf Sediment Transport: Geological Society of London, Special Publications 274, p. 37-43.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2007, Rejoinder to: Cowell, P.J., and Thom, B.G., 2006. Reply to: Pilkey, O.H. and Cooper, A.G., 2006. Discussion of Cowell, et al., 2006. Management of Uncertainty in Predicting Climate-Change Impacts on Beaches. Journal of Coastal Research, 22(1), 232-245; Journal of Coastal Research, 22(6), 1577-1579; Journal of Coastal Research, 22(6), 1580-1584. Journal of Coastal Research, v. 23(1), p. 277-280.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., Lewis, D.A., Pilkey, O.H., 2007, Fetch-limited barrier islands: overlooked coastal landforms: GSA Today, v. 17, no. 3, p. 4-9.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Pilkey-Jarvis, L, 2007, Mathematical Models Just Don’t Add Up: The Chronicle of Higher Education, Section B, May 25, 2007, p. B12.
  • Pilkey, O.H., and Cooper, J.A.G., 2007, Lifting the Flap or Why Coastal Models Don’t Work: Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium), 585-587, Gold Coast, Australia.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., Pilkey, O.H., and Lewis, D.A., 2007, Islands behind Islands: An unappreciated coastal landform category: Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium), 907-911, Gold Coast, Australia.
  • Lewis, D.A., Cooper, J.A.G., Pilkey, O.H., and Short, A.D., 2007, Fetch Limited Barrier Islands of Spencer Gulf, South Australia: Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium), 912-916, Gold Coast, Australia.
  • Cooper, J.A.G., and Pilkey, O.H., 2008, Discussion of: Brøker, et al., 2007, Morphological modeling: a tool for optimization of coastal structures. Journal of Coastal Research 23, p. 1148-1158: Journal of Coastal Research 24(3), pp. 814-816.
  • Pilkey, O.H., Cooper, J.A.G., and Lewis, D.A., 2009, Global distribution and geomorphology of fetch-limited barrier islands, Journal of Coastal Research 25(4), pp. 819-837.
  • Pilkey, O.H. and Neal, W.J., 2009, North Topsail Beach, North Carolina: A Model for Maximizing Coastal Hazard Vulnerability, in Kelley, J.T., Pilkey, O.H., and Cooper, J.A.G. (eds.), America’s Most Vulnerable Coastal Communities: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 460, p. 73-90.
  • Stutz, M.L., and Pilkey, O.H., 2011, Open-ocean Barrier Islands: Global Influence of Climatic, Oceanographic, and Depositional Settings: Journal of Coastal Research, 27(2), 207-222.